Field evaluation of a grain drill equipped with jointers for direct planting in previous wheat crop residues

Document Type : Full Article


Department of Biosystems Engineering, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran


ABSTRACT-In conventional agriculture, a large amount of energy is consumed in fuel consumption and depreciation of farm tractors and any other farm equipment mostly in tillage and planting operations. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate a till-planting unit equipped with three jointers. This unit was expected to act as conventional furrow openers such as shovel openers tilling the soil and plant simultaneously, which could reduce farm traffic and farming costs. The unit performance was compared to that of a grain drill. The control experiment was conducted on a moldboard plowed soil, disked by a tandem disk harrow and planted by a pneumatic grain drill. The experimental site was also covered with previous wheat crop residue and the soil was clay with loam at 15.2% d.b. moisture content. The working depth was 6 and 20 cm for direct planting and conventional system, respectively. The experiments were performed at three tractor forward speeds (4, 6 and 8 km h-1) in triplicate in the Experiment Site of Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Results indicated that the direct planting system reduced the operation time, fuel consumption, draft and specific drawbar energy 65, 60, 75 and 80%, respectively as compared to the conventional practice. However, values of the mean weight diameter and seedling growth rate did not show any significant difference in the two cases at 5% level. Furthermore, moisture retention in direct planting system increased 1.87% per 10 days as compared with the conventional farming system.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

ارزیابی مزرعه ‏ای خطی‏ کار مجهز به پیش‏ خیش به منظور کشت مستقیم در بقایای گیاهی گندم

Authors [Persian]

  • سوران عبداله پور
  • سید محمد حسین کارپرورفرد
گروه مهندسی بیوسیستم، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده- بخش اعظم انرژی مصرفی در کشاورزی سنتی مشتمل بر مصرف سوخت و استهلاک تراکتور و سایر ادوات مزرعه‏ ای اعم از خاک ورز و کارنده‏ ها می‏ باشد. هدف اصلی از این پژوهش طراحی و ارزیابی یک واحد خاکورز-کارنده سه پیش‏ خیشی است. پیش خیش‏ ها همانند شیار بازکن های معمولی به کار گرفته شده ‏‏اند. عملکرد این واحد در مقایسه با بذرکارهای مرسوم ارزیابی گردید. گاو آهن برگردان‏ دار به همراه دیسک کلوخه شکن چهارشاخ ه‏ای جهت خاک ورزی مرسوم وخطی‏ کارپنوماتیک گندم به عنوان کارنده شاهد استفاده شد. زمین آزمایش با پوشش گیاهی گندم و با بافت رسی-لومی در تحت شرایط 2/15 درصد محتوای رطوبت (برمبنای وزن خشک) مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. عمق کار برای واحدهای خاکورز-کارنده کشت مستقیم و کارنده معمولی به ترتیب 6 سانتیمتر و 20 سانتیمتر در نظر گرفته شد. عملیات در سه سطح سرعت (4، 6 و 8 کیلومتر بر ساعت) به همراه سه تکرار در مزرعه‏ آزمایشی دانشگاه شیراز اجرا گردید. نتایج نشان دادند که زمان کشت، میزان مصرف سوخت، مقدار مقاومت کششی ویژه و انرژی ویژه مالبندی به ترتیب 65%، 60%، 75% و 80% در مقایسه با کارنده شاهد کاهش پیدا کرده است. مقادیر عددی مربوط به قطر متوسط وزنی کلوخه ها و نرخ رشد بذور در سطح احتمال 5% تفاوت معنی‏ داری برای دو نمونه کارنده نشان نداد. بااندازه‏ گیری محتوای رطوبتی خاک پس از ده روز میزان ذخیره رطوبتی در کشت مستقیم نسبت به کشت مرسوم 87/1% افزایش داشت.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه های کلیدی:
  • ماشین‏ کشت‏ مستقیم
  • مصرف سوخت
  • پیش‏ خیش
  • زمان کشت
  • انرژی ویژه مالبندی
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