Role of sulfur in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) gene expression, proline accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activity of wheat under water deficit conditions

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Agronomy and Crop Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam,I. R. Iran



Sulfur (S) plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and serves numerous biological functions in plants. To investigate the role of sulfur in drought stress protection, two experiments were conducted under greenhouse and growth ‎chamber conditions in 2021 Also, to evaluate ‎the influence of foliar application of sulfur on the expression of Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase, )P5CS)‎, proline concentration, and antioxidant enzyme activities‎, the plants of wheat Sardari and Ivan cultivars were exposed to two levels of water regimes. Plants under well-watered irrigation and drought stress conditions showed different P5CS expression levels and accumulated proline. The P5CS expression level in the Ivan cultivar was significantly increased by foliar application of S, while the same application had no significant effect on P5CS expression in the Sardari cultivar. Plants exposed to drought stress and foliar-sprayed with S showed a higher proline accumulation The activities of antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase (POD), catalase, ‎glutathione peroxidase (GP), and glutathione reductase , were increased by 134 %, 40.4 %,  45.4 %, and 77.4 %, respectively, in plants exposed to drought stress. POD and GR ‎were ‎significantly increased‎ by 19.6 % and 51.8 %, respectively, ‎due to S application. Drought-induced plants that were foliar-sprayed with S exhibited a significantly lower rate of ion leakage and higher leaf-relative water content than those of control plants. Based on the results of the present research, it was revealed that S substantially enhances the expression rate of the P5CS gene, leading to proline accumulation, and activates defense reactions in water-stressed wheat.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

نقش سولفور در بیان ژن پرولین-5-کربوکسیلیت سنتاز (P5CS)، تجمع پرولین و فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانتی گندم در شرایط تنش کمبود آب

Authors [Persian]

  • زهره کریمی
  • محمدجواد زارع
  • آرش فاضلی
  • بتول زارعی
گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

سولفور نقش کلیدی در رشد و نمو گیاه دارد و در بسیاری از کارکردهای زیستی گیاه مورد استفاده قرار می­گیرد. برای بررسی نقش سولفور در حفاظت گیاه در مقابل تنش خشکی، دو آزمایش در شرایط گلخانه و اتاقک رشد در سال 1399 انجام شد. همچنین برای ارزیابی تاثیر محلول پاشی با عنصر سولفور بر بیان ژنهای مرتبط با ساخت پرولین(پرولین-5-کربوکسیلات سنتاز، (P5CS)، تجمع پرولین،  و فعالیت های آنتی_اکسیدانتی، گیاهان دو رقم  سرداری و ایوان  گندم در معرض دو سطح رژیم آبی قرار گرفتند.  گیاهان در معرض تنش آبی در مقایسه با کیاهانی که تحت آبیاری مطلوب قرار گرفته بودند سطوح مختلف بیان ژن  P5CSو تجمع پرولین را نشان دادند. هرچند محلول پاشی با گوگرد منجر به تغییر معنی دار در بیان ژن P5CS در رقم سرداری نگردید اما موجب افزایش معنی دار سطح بیان این ژن در رقم ایوان گردید. اعمال تنش آبی همراه با محلول‌پاشی سولفور موجب تجمع بیشتر پرولین گردید. اعمال تنش خشکی موجب افزایش فعالیت آنزیمهای آنتی اکسدانتی شامل پراکسیداز، کاتالاز، گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز و گلاتاتیون ریدوکتاز به ترتیب به میزان 134، 40/4، 54/4 و 77/4 درصد گردید. پراکسیداز ‏و گلاتاتیون ریدوکتاز در اثر کاربرد سولفور به ترتیب به میزان 19/6 و 51/8 درصد افزایش معنی دار داشتند.گیاهان محلول پاشی شده با سولفور از نشت یونی کمتر و میزان بیشتر محتوای آب نسبی برگ نسبت به گیاهان شاهد برخوردار بودند. بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق مشخص گردید که سولفور موجب افزایش  معنی دار بیان ژن P5CS و تجمع  بیشتر پرولین  گردید. همچنین گوگرد موجب فعال سازی واکنش­های دفاعی مرتبط با اثرات سوء تنش کم آبی در گندم گردید.

Keywords [Persian]

  • آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانتی
  • پرولین
  • پیرولین-5-کربوکسیلیت سینتاز
  • سولفور
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