Interaction effects of biochar levels, irrigation regimes, and irrigation water salinity levels on wheat II: grain and soil ions concentration and soil water retention curve

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Water Engineering Department, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. Iran

2 Water Engineering Department, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. Iran and Drought Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. Iran



In recent decades, the application of biochar to improve soil fertility and soil physical property and also enhance crop tolerance to abiotic stress has been proposed by researchers. Therefore, the effect of three levels of biochar (zero, 40, and 80 Mg ha-1) produced from wheat straw, irrigation water salinity (0.6, 6, and 12 dS m-1), and three irrigation regimes (50, 75, and 100% of crop water requirement) on wheat grain ions and soil ions concentration as well as some soil physical properties after wheat harvest were investigated under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the Na+ and K+ concentration in soil significantly increased by application of biochar and also salinity, while application of 50% deficit irrigation significantly declined the Na+ and K+ concentration in soil. Also, the soil ECe of the highest level of biochar and salinity increased 2.1 and 1.59 times that of without biochar and salinity, respectively, while application of deficit irrigation significantly declined the soil ECe due to lower application of saline water and lower accumulation of salt. Considering the main effects of treatments, application of the highest level of biochar (80 Mg ha-1) increased the K+ concentration in grain, while application of saline water (6 and 12 dS m-1) and deficit irrigation (75% and 50 %) both declined the K+ concentration in grain. The application of biochar enhanced the soil water holding capacity. In conclusion, it is recommended to apply wheat straw biochar to increase soil fertility and increased water storage capacity in the soil. Finally, the application of non-saline biochar is suggested to prevent salinization and the destruction of agricultural soil.


Article Title [Persian]

اثرات متقابل سطوح بیوچار، رژیم‌های آبیاری و سطوح شوری آب آبیاری بر گندم II: غلظت یون‌های دانه و خاک و منحنی نگهداشت آب خاک

Authors [Persian]

  • محمد رضا شبان 1
  • فاطمه رزاقی 2
  • علی رضا سپاسخواه 2
1 بخش مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج.ا. ایران
2 بخش مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج.ا. ایران و مرکز تحقیقات خشکسالی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، جمهوری اسلامی ایران، ج.ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

در دهه های اخیر، استفاده از بیوچار برای بهبود حاصلخیزی خاک و خواص فیزیکی خاک و همچنین افزایش تحمل گیاه به تنش غیرزیستی توسط محققان پیشنهاد شده است. بنابراین تأثیر سه سطح بیوچار (صفر، 40 و 80 مگا گرم در هکتار) از کاه و کلش گندم ، شوری آب آبیاری (6/0، 6 و 12 دسیزیمنس بر متر) و سه رژیم آبیاری (50، 75 و 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه) بر غلظت یونهای دانه گندم و یونهای خاک و همچنین برخی خصوصیات فیزیکی خاک پس از برداشت گندم در شرایط گخانه‌ای بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که غلظت +Na و +K در خاک با کاربرد بیوچار و همچنین شوری به طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت، در حالی که استفاده از کم‌آبیاری 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه باعث کاهش معنی‌دار غلظت +Na و +K در خاک شد. همچنین، ECe خاک با بالاترین سطح بیوچار و شوری به دلیل تجمع غلظت نمک در خاک به ترتیب 2/1 و 1/59 برابر بدون بیوچار و بدون شوری افزایش یافت، در حالی که استفاده از کم آبیاری به دلیل کاربرد کمتر آب شور و تجمع نمک کمتر باعث کاهش معنی‌دار ECe خاک شد. با در نظر گرفتن اثرات اصلی تیمارها، کاربرد بالاترین سطح بیوچار (80 مگاگرم بر هکتار) باعث افزایش غلظت پتاسیم در دانه شد، در حالی که کاربرد آب شور (6 و 12 دسیزیمنس بر متر) و کم آبیاری (75 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه) هر دو باعث کاهش غلظت پتاسیم در دانه شدند. همچنین، استفاده از بیوچار ظرفیت نگهداری آب در خاک را بهبود ‌بخشید. در نتیجه، استفاده از بیوچار کاه وکلش گندم برای افزایش حاصلخیزی خاک و بهبود ذخیره آب در خاک توصیه می‌شود. در نهایت استفاده از بیوچار غیر شور جهت جلوگیری از شور شدن و تخریب خاک‌های کشاورزی پیشنهاد می‌شود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • پارامترهای معادله ون گنوختن
  • منحنی نگهداشت آب خاک
  • نسبت سدیم به پتاسیم
  • هدایت الکتریکی عصاره اشباع خاک
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