Interaction effects of biochar levels, irrigation regimes, and irrigation water salinity levels on wheat: I: Physiological parameters, evapotranspiration, and yield

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Water Engineering Department, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. Iran

2 Water Engineering Department, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. Iran and Drought Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. Iran



Biochar, as a soil amendment, improves soil fertility and enhances crops productivity under water or salinity stresses. This study aimed to investigate the effects of biochar application rates (zero, 40, and 80 Mg ha-1) under three irrigation regimes (50, 75, and 100% of plant water requirement) and salinity levels (0.6, 6, and 12 dS m-1) on physiological parameters, evapotranspiration, and growth of wheat grown under greenhouse condition. The experiment was performed in a complete randomized design with a factorial arrangement in four replications. Application of a high level of salinity (12 dS m-1) declined wheat grain yield by 28%, 57%, and 75% in comparison with that at 0.6 dS m-1 under zero, 40, and 80 Mg ha-1 biochar application, respectively. The results showed that application of 80 Mg ha-1 biochar decreased wheat evapotranspiration by 24.4% in comparison with that at no biochar application. In addition, the application of biochar improved wheat stomatal conductance and canopy temperature under both abiotic stress conditions. Salinity (12 dS m-1) and deficit irrigation (50 %), respectively declined wheat evapotranspiration by 19% and 15% in comparison with that at 0.6 dS m-1 and full irrigation. Also, the application of biochar and salinity both declined the root length density due to the accumulation of salt around the root. It is concluded that 40 Mg ha-1 of biochar can be applied as a soil amendment to improve wheat yield and reduce evapotranspiration under applied deficit irrigation and salinity stress.


Article Title [Persian]

اثرات متقابل سطوح بیوچار، رژیم‌های آبیاری و سطوح شوری آب آبیاری بر گندم:I : پارامترهای فیزیولوژیکی، تبخیر-تعرق و محصول

Authors [Persian]

  • محمد رضا شبان 1
  • فاطمه رزاقی 2
  • علی رضا سپاسخواه 2
1 بخش مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج.ا. ایران
2 بخش مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج.ا. ایران و مرکز تحقیقات خشکسالی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، جمهوری اسلامی ایران، ج.ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

بیوچار، به عنوان اصلاح کننده خاک، سبب حاصلخیزی خاک و افزایش بهره‌وری محصولات تحت تنش‌های آبی یا شوری می‌شود. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی اثرات میزان مصرف بیوچار (صفر، 40 و 80 مگا‌گرم بر هکتار) در سه رژیم‌ آبیاری (50، 75 و 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه) و سطوح شوری (0/6، 6 و 12 دسی زیمنس بر متر) بر پارامترهای فیزیولوژیکی، تبخیر-تعرق و رشد گندم کشت شده در شرایط گلخانه انجام شد. آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با آرایش فاکتوریل در چهار تکرار انجام شد. اعمال شوری در سطح بالا (12 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر)  باعث کاهش به ترتیب 28%، 57% و 75% عملکرد دانه گندم در مقایسه با 0/6 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر مربع در سطوح مصرف صفر، 40 و 80 مگا‌گرم در هکتار بیوچار شد. نتایج نشان داد که مصرف 80 مگاگرم در هکتار بیوچار باعث کاهش تبخیر-تعرق گندم به میزان 24/4 درصد در مقایسه با عدم مصرف بیوچار شد. علاوه بر این، کاربرد بیوچار باعث بهبود هدایت روزنه‌ای و دمای پوشش سبز گندم در هر دو شرایط تنش غیرزیستی شد. شوری (12 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر) و کم آبیاری (50 درصد) به ترتیب 19 و 15 درصد تبخیر- تعرق گندم را در مقایسه با 0/6 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر و آبیاری کامل کاهش دادند. همچنین، کاربرد بیوچار و شوری بدلیل تجمع نمک در اطراف ریشه،  سبب کاهش تراکم طولی ریشه  شدند. نتیجه‌گیری می‌شود که مصرف 40 مگاگرم بر هکتار بیوچار می‌تواند به عنوان اصلاح‌کننده خاک برای بهبود عملکرد گندم و کاهش تبخیر-تعرق در شرایط تنش کم‌آبیاری و شوری به کاربرده شده، استفاده شود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • بیوچار
  • تبخیر-تعرق
  • تراکم طولی ریشه
  • دمای پوشش سبز
  • هدایت روزنه‌ای
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