Factors affecting entrepreneurial opportunity recognition and exploitation in the context of the Iranian agriculture sector

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran


The agricultural entrepreneurial process in developing countries is one of the most understudied issues in entrepreneurship research. Opportunity recognition and opportunity exploitation as two considerable components of the entrepreneurial process are among the most important abilities of successful entrepreneurs. Factors influencing opportunity recognition and opportunity exploitation in the Iranian agriculture sector was the aim of this study. The survey research method was used to collect data from a sample of 246 awarded agricultural entrepreneurs (N= 721), selected by Iran’s Ministry of Cooperatives Labor and Social Welfare, through proportionate stratified random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire and were analyzed using R software. The face validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts from the School of Agriculture, Shiraz University and the reliability was examined using Cronbach’s alpha through a pilot test. Independent variables were considered according to a sector-specific perspective, including social media networks, the success and failure of prior businesses, and environmental uncertainty. The findings showed that social media networks have positive effects on opportunity recognition and exploitation alike. The prior successful business also influenced opportunity recognition and recognition positively. The influence of prior failed business on opportunity recognition was positive, while its effect on opportunity exploitation was not significant. The effect of environmental uncertainty on two dependent variables was vice versa, a positive effect on opportunity recognition and a negative effect on opportunity exploitation. The results of this study indicated that the factors may not have a similar effect on opportunity recognition and exploitation.


Article Title [فارسی]

عوامل مؤثر بر تشخیص فرصت کارآفرینانه و بهره‌برداری از آن در بخش کشاورزی ایران

Authors [فارسی]

  • احسان معصومی
  • کورش رضائی‌مقدم
گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [فارسی]

فرآیند کارآفرینانه کشاورزی در کشورهای درحال‌توسعه یکی از موضوعاتی است که در پژوهش‌های کارآفرینی نادیده گرفته شده‌ است. تشخیص فرصت و بهره‌برداری از آن به‌عنوان دو جزء مهم از فرآیند کارآفرینانه، از مهم‌ترین توانایی‌های کارآفرینان موفق محسوب می‌شود. هدف این پژوهش، تعیین عوامل مؤثر بر تشخیص فرصت‌های کارآفرینانه و بهره‌برداری از این فرصت‌ها در بخش کشاورزی ایران بود. در این راستا، نمونه‌ای 246 نفری (N=721) از طریق نمونه‌گیری تصادفی طبقه‌ای متناسب انتخاب شد. داده‌ها با پرسشنامه جمع‌آوری شد و با استفاده نرم‌افزار R مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. روایی صوری پرسشنامه به‌وسیله اساتید صاحب‌نظر در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز و پایایی آن از طریق ضریب آلفای کرونباخ در مطالعه‌ای پیشگام مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که متغیرهای مستقل اثر متفاوتی بر روی متغیرهای وابسته دارند. متغیرهای مستقل عبارت از شبکه‌های رسانه‌ای اجتماعی، موفقیت و شکست کسب‌وکارهای قبلی و عدم قطعیت محیطی بر اساس ویژگی‌های بخش کشاورزی مورد ملاحظه قرار گرفتند. یافته‌ها نشان داد که شبکه‌های رسانه‌ای اجتماعی اثری مثبت بر تشخیص فرصت و بهره‌برداری از آن دارند. اثر شکست کسب‌وکارهای قبلی بر تشخیص فرصت مثبت بود، درحالی‌که اثر آن بر بهره‌برداری از فرصت معنی‌دار نبود. عدم قطعیت محیطی بر دو متغیر وابسته، اثرهای معکوس داشت؛ اثر آن بر تشخیص فرصت، مثبت و بر بهره‌برداری از فرصت منفی بود. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که متغیرهای مستقل ممکن است اثرهای مشابهی بر تشخیص فرصت و بهره‌برداری از آن نداشته باشند.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • فرآیند کارآفرینانه کشاورزی
  • بخش کشاورزی ایران
  • بهره‌برداری از فرصت
  • تشخیص فرصت
Adebayo, P. O. (2015). Impact of social media on students entrepreneurial orientation: A study of selected institutions in Nigeria. Journal of the International Association of Advanced Technology and Science, 1(12), 1-13.
Aghdaie, S. F. A., Seidi, M., & Riasi, A. (2012). Identifying the barriers to Iran’s saffron export by using porter's diamond model. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(5), 129-138.
Aimin, H. (2010). Uncertainty, risk aversion and risk management in agriculture. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procardia, 1, 152-156.
Alexander, B. (2006). A new wave of innovation for teaching and learning?, Educause Review, 41(2), 32-44.
Alharbie, A. (2015). Business growth thru social media marketing. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies,  13(4), 873-880.
Arasti, Z., Zandi, F., & Bahmani, N. (2014). Business failure factors in Iranian SMEs: Do successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs have different viewpoints?. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 4(1), 1-14.
Ardichvili, A., & Cardozo, R. N. (2000). A model of the entrepreneurial opportunity recognition process. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 8(2), 103-119.
Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R., & Ray, S. (2003). A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development. Journal of Business venturing, 18(1), 105-123.
Arenius, P., & De Clercq, D. D. (2005). A network-based approach on opportunity recognition. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 249-265.
Astrov, V., Ghodsi, M., Grieveson, R., & Stehrer, R. (2018). The Iranian economy: Challenges and opportunities. Wiiw research reports. Retrieved from https:// ideas.repec.org/p/wii/rpaper/rr429.html.
Baron, R. A. (2006). Opportunity recognition as pattern recognition: How entrepreneurs “connect the dots” to identify new business opportunities. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 20(1), 104-119.
Bashar, A., Ahmad, I., & Wasiq, M. (2012). Effectiveness of social media as a marketing tool: An empirical study. International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services & Management Research, 1(11), 88-99.
Birley, S. (1986). The role of networks in the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 1(1), 107-117.
Block, J. H., & Wagner, M. (2010). Necessity and opportunity entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and earning s differentials. Schmalenbach Business Review, 62(2), 154-174.
Byerlee, D., De Janvry, A., & Sadoulet, E. (2009). Agriculture for development: Toward a new paradigm. Annual Review of Resource Economics, 1(1), 15-31.
Casson, M. (1982). The entrepreneur: An economic theory, Totowa. NJ: Barnes & Noble Books.
Chandra, Y., Styles, C., & Ian W. (2009). The recognition of first time international entrepreneurial opportunities: Evidence from firms in knowledge-based industries. International Marketing Review, 26(1), 30-61.
Choi, Y. R., & Shepherd, D. A. (2004). Entrepreneurs’ decisions to exploit opportunities. Journal of Management, 30(3), 377-395.
Coccia, M. (2007). A new taxonomy of country performance and risk based on economic and technological indicators. Journal of Applied Economics, 10(1), 29-42.
Culas, R., & Mahendrarajah, M. (2005). Causes of diversification in agriculture over time: Evidence from Norwegian farming sector. Paper presented at the 11th International Congress of the European Association of Agricultural Economists (No. 724-2016-49296), Budapest, 2005, Copenhagen, EAAE.
Davidsson, P., & Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(3), 301-331.
De Carolis, D. M., & Saparito, P. (2006). Social capital, cognition, and entrepreneurial opportunities: A theoretical framework. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1), 41-56.
De Lauwere, C. C. (2005). The role of agricultural entrepreneurship in Dutch agriculture of today. Agricultural Economics, 33(2), 229-238.
de Moraes Sá, J. C., Lal, R., Cerri, C. C., Lorenz, K., Hungria, M., & de Faccio Carvalho, P. C. (2017). Low-carbon agriculture in South America to mitigate global climate change and advance food security. Environment International, 98, 102-112.
Desai, S. (2011). Measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries. Working paper in Naudé, W.A. (Ed). Desai, S. (2011). Measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries. In Entrepreneurship and economic development (pp. 94-107). Palgrave Macmillan, London. Retrieved from https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/45048/1/601807472.pdf.
DeTienne, D. R. (2010). Entrepreneurial exit as a critical component of the entrepreneurial process: Theoretical development. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(2), 203-215.
Duffy, B. E., & Pruchniewska, U. (2017). Gender and self-enterprise in the social media age: A digital double bind, Information, Communication & Society, 20(6), 843-859.
Dwivedy, N. (2011). Challenges faced by the agriculture sector in developing countries with special reference to India. International Journal of Rural Studies (IJRS), 18(2), 1-6.
Eckhardt, J. T., & Shane, S. A. (2003). Opportunities and entrepreneurship. Journal of Management, 29(3), 333-349.
Fang, Y. H., & Chiu, C. M. (2010). In justice we trust: Exploring knowledge-sharing continuance intentions in virtual communities of practice. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(2), 235-246.
Foss, N. J., Lyngsie, J., & Zahra, S. A. (2013). The role of external knowledge sources and organizational design in the process of opportunity exploitation. Strategic Management Journal, 34(12), 1453-1471.
Fuentes, M. D. M., Ruiz Arroyo, M., Bojica, A. M., & Fernández Pérez, V. (2010). Prior knowledge and social networks in the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(4), 481-501.
Gaglio, C. M., & Winter, S. (2009). Entrepreneurial alertness and opportunity identification: Where are we now?. In Understanding the entrepreneurial mind (pp. 305-325). New York, NY: Springer.
George, N. M., Parida, V., Lahti, T., & Wincent, J. (2016). A systematic literature review of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition: insights on influencing factors. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(2), 309-350.
Gielnik, M. M., Frese, M., Graf, J. M., & Kampschulte, A. (2012). Creativity in the opportunity identification process and the moderating effect of diversity of information. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(5), 559-576.
Gustafsson, V., & Khan, M. S. (2017). Monetising blogs: Enterprising behaviour, co-creation of opportunities and social media entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 7, 26-31.
Hackworth, B. A., & Kunz, M. B. (2011). Health care and social media: Building relationships via social networks.  Academy of Health Care Management Journal, 7(2), 1-15.
Hadjikhani, A., Ghauri, P., & Johanson, J. (2005). Introduction: Opportunity development in business networks, In Managing opportunity development in business networks (pp. 1-24). London: Palgrave Macmillan
Hang, M., & Van Weezel, A. (2007). Media and entrepreneurship: A survey of the literature relating both concepts. Journal of Media Business Studies, 4(1), 51-70.
Hansen, D. J., Lumpkin, G. T., & Hills, G. E. (2011). A multidimensional examination of a creativity-based opportunity recognition model. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research,  17(5), 515-533.
Hayati, D., & Karami, E. (2005). Typology of causes of poverty: The perception of Iranian farmers. Journal of Economic Psychology, 26(6), 884-901.
Hemsley, J., & Mason, R. M. (2012). The nature of knowledge in the social media age: Implications for knowledge management models, Presented at 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 3928-3937), Maui, 2012, New York, IEEE.
Hmieleski, K. M., & Baron, R. A. (2008). Regulatory focus and new venture performance: A study of entrepreneurial opportunity exploitation under conditions of risk versus uncertainty. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 2(4), 285-299.
Jagongo, A., & Kinyua, C. (2013). The social media and entrepreneurship growth. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(10), 213-227.
Jo, H., & Lee, J. (1996). The relationship between an entrepreneur's background and performance in a new venture. Technovation, 16(4), 161-211.
Kahar, R., Yamimi, F., Bunari, G., & Habil, H. (2012). Trusting the social media in small business. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 66, 564-570.
Kamali Dehghan, S. (2016). Iran anticipates saffron sales will soar after lifting of sanctions. The guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/feb/04/iran-saffron-sales-lifting-sanctions.
Kane, G. C., Alavi, M., Labianca, G., (Joe) & Borgatti, S. P. (2014). What’s different about social media networks: A framework and research agenda. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 38(1), 275-304.
Kasch, C., Haimerl, P., Arlt, S., & Heuwieser, W. (2016). The use of mobile devices and online services by German veterinary students. Veterinary Evidence, 1(3), 1-12.
Kickul, J., Gundry, L. K., Barbosa, S. D., & Whitcanack, L. (2009). Intuition versus analysis? Testing differential models of cognitive style on entrepreneurial self- efficacy and the new venture creation process. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(2), 439-453.
Kirzner, I. M. (1997). Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: An Austrian approach. Journal of Economic Literature, 35(1), 60-85.
Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
Krishnan, R., Martin, X., & Noorderhaven, N. G. (2006). When does trust matter to alliance performance?. Academy of Management Journal, 49(5), 894-917.
Krueger, N., & Dickson, P. R. (1994). How believing in ourselves increases risk taking: Perceived self- efficacy and opportunity recognition. Decision Sciences, 25(3), 385-400.
Kuckertz, A., Kollmann, T., Krell, P., & Stöckmann, C. (2017). Understanding, differentiating, and measuring opportunity recognition and opportunity exploitation. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 23(1), 78-97.
Lafontaine, F., & White, K. J. (1986). Obtaining any wald statistic you want. Economics Letters, 21(1), 35-40.
Lans, T., Seuneke, P., & Klerkx, L. (2013). Agricultural entrepreneurship, In Encyclopedia of creativity, invention, innovation and entrepreneurship (pp. 44-49). New York: Springer.
Lans, T., Van Galen, M. A., Verstegen, J. A. A. M., Biemans, H. J. A., & Mulder, M. (2014). Searching for entrepreneurs among small business ownermanagers in agriculture. NJAS-Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 68, 41-51.
Lee, L., & Wong, P. K. (2006). How does an entrepreneur’s ability influence the propensity to exploit novel opportunities? The moderating role of personality and environment, MPRA Paper No. 597. Retrieved from athttp://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/597/. Posted 26. October 2006/22:38.
Lettl, C., Hienerth, C., & Gemuenden, H. G. (2008). Exploring how lead users develop radical innovation: Opportunity recognition and exploitation in the field of medical equipment technology. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 55(2), 219-233.
Liu, Q., & Mintram, R. C. (2005). Preliminary data analysis methods in software estimation. Software Quality Journal, 13(1), 91-115.
Mansson, M. (2011). Mediatized tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1634-1652.
McElwee, G. (2008). A taxonomy of entrepreneurial farmers. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 6(3), 465-478.
McElwee, G., & Bosworth, G. (2010). Exploring the strategic skills of farmers across a typology of farm diversification approaches. Journal of Farm Management, 13(12), 819-838.
McLachlan, K. (1988). The neglected garden: The politics and ecology of agriculture in Iran, London: IB Tauris and Co.
McMullen, J. S., & Shepherd, D. A. (2006). Entrepreneurial action and the role of uncertainty in the theory of the entrepreneur. Academy of Management Review, 31(1), 132-152.
Menezes, F. (2001). Food sovereignty: A vital requirement for food security in the context of globalization. Development, (4), 29-33.
Meusburger, P. (2013). Relations between knowledge and economic development: Some methodological considerations, In Knowledge and the economy (pp. 15-42). Netherlands: Springer.
Milliken, F. J. (1987). Three types of perceived uncertainty about the environment: State, effect, and response uncertainty. Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 133-143.
Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor and Welfare (2017). Guide for entrepreneurs. Retrieved from http://karafarinanebartar.ir/Pdf/karafarinan_guide.pdf.
Minniti, M. (2004). Entrepreneurial alertness and asymmetric information in a spin-glass model. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(5), 637-658.
Nemes, G. (2005). Integrated rural development-the concept and its operation. IEHAS discussion papers (No. MT-DP-2005/6). Retrieved from https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/108086/1/MTDP0506.pdf.
Nomani, M. A., Ali, I., & Ahmed, A. (2017). A new approach for solving multi-objective transportation problems. International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management, 12(3), 165-173.
Ogunnaike, O. O., & Kehinde, O. J. (2013). Social networking and business performance: The case of selected entrepreneurs in Ota, Nigeria. Journal of Business Administration and Management Sciences Research, 2(5), 116-122.
Owens, K. S., Kirwan, J. R., Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J. J., & Gibson, L. W. (2013). Personality correlates of self-employed small business owners' success. Work, 45(1), 73-85.
Ozgen, E., & Minsky, B. D. (2007). Opportunity recognition in rural entrepreneurship in developing countries. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 11, 49-73.
Phelps, C., Heidl, R., & Wadhwa, A. (2012). Knowledge, networks, and knowledge networks a review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 38(4), 1115-1166.
Plummer, L. A., & Acs, Z. J. (2014). Localized competition in the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(1), 121-136.
R Core Team (2018). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Austria: R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna. Retrieved from https://www.R-project.org/.
Rahimi, B. (2011). The agonistic social media: Cyberspace in the formation of dissent and consolidation of state power in postelection Iran. The Communication Review, 14(3), 158-178.
Ramos-Rodríguez, A. R., Medina-Garrido, J. A., Lorenzo-Gómez, J. D., & Ruiz-Navarro, J. (2010). What you know or who you know? The role of intellectual and social capital in opportunity recognition. International Small Business Journal, 28(6), 566-582.
Ran, Z. (2012). A model of collaborative intrusion detection system based on multi-agents. Presented at International Conference on Computer Science and Service System (pp. 789-792), Nanjing, 2012, New York, IEEE.
Ren, S., Shu, R., Bao, Y., & Chen, X. (2016). Linking network ties to entrepreneurial opportunity discovery and exploitation: The role of affective and cognitive trust. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(2), 465-485.
Rezaei-Moghaddam, K., Karami, E., & Gibson, J. (2005). Conceptualizing sustainable agriculture Iran as an illustrative case. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 27(3), 25-56.
Sadeghi, V. J., Nkongolo-Bakenda, J. M., Anderson, R. B., & Dana, L. P. (2019). An institution-based view of international entrepreneurship: A comparison of context-based and universal determinants in developing and economically advanced countries. International Business Review, 28(6), 1-16.
Shamsudeen, K., Keat, O. Y., & Hassan, H. (2017). Entrepreneurial success within the process of opportunity recognition and exploitation: An expansion of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition model. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(1), 107-111.
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-226.
Shepherd, D. A., & DeTienne, D. R. (2005). Prior knowledge, potential financial reward, and opportunity identification. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(1), 91-112.
Shim, J., & Davidsson, P. (2018). Shorter than we thought: The duration of venture creation processes. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 9, 10-16.
Singh, R., Hills, G. E., Hybels, R. C., & Lumpkin, G. T. (1999). Opportunity recognition through social network characteristics of entrepreneurs. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 19(10) 228-241.
Singh, S., Corner, P., & Pavlovich, K. (2007). Coping with entrepreneurial failure. Journal of Management & Organization, 13(4), 331-344.
Singh, V. K., Jain, R., & Kankanhalli, M. S. (2009). Motivating contributors in social media networks. Presented at proceedings of the first SIGMM workshop on social media (pp. 11-18), New York, 2009, ACM.
Sitkin, S. B. (1992). Learning through failure: The strategy of small losses. Research in Organizational Behavior, 14, 231-266.
Smith, M., Hansen, D. L., & Gleave, E. (2009). Analyzing enterprise social media networks. Presented at the Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering, Vancouver, 2009, New York, IEEE.
Stevenson, H. H., & Jarillo, J. C. (1990). A paradigm of entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial management. Entrepreneurship: Concepts, Theory and Perspective, 11, 17-27.
Sull, D. N., & Escobari, M. (2004). Creating value in an unpredictable world. Business Strategy Review, 15(3), 14-20.
Swamidass, P. M., & Newell, W. T. (1987). Manufacturing strategy, environmental uncertainty and performance: A path analytic model. Management Science, 33(4), 509-524.
Syed-Ahmad, S. F., & Murphy, J. (2010). Social networking as a marketing tool: The case of a small Australian company. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 19(7), 700-716.
Tamjidyamcholo, A., Baba, M. S. B., Shuib, N. L. M., & Rohani, V. A. (2014). Evaluation model for knowledge sharing in information security professional virtual community. Computers & Security, 43, 19-34.
Tumasjan, A., & Braun, R. (2012). In the eye of the beholder: How regulatory focus and self-efficacy interact in influencing opportunity recognition. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(6), 622-636.
Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P., & Wright, M. (2009). The extent and nature of opportunity identification by experienced entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(2), 99-115.
Ucbasaran, D., Wright, M., Westhead, P., & Busenitz, L. (2003). The impact of entrepreneurial experience on opportunity identification and exploitation: Habitual and novice entrepreneurs. In J. Katz & D. Shepherd (Eds.), Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth, vol. 6: Cognition and decision-making in the entrepreneurial context: 231-264. Oxford, UK: JAI, Elsevier
Vahedi, M., Kabiri, M., Salami, S. A., Rezadoost, H., Mirzaie, M., & Kanani, M. R. (2018). Quantitative HPLC-based metabolomics of some Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) accessions. Industrial Crops and Products, 118, 26-29.
Van der Straaten, J. (2002). Can sustainable tourism positively influence rural regions?  In Richards G, Hall D (Eds). Tourism and Sustainable Community Development. (pp. 221-232) London: Routledge.
Venkataraman, S. (1997). The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research: An editor’s perspective. In J. Katz & R. Brockhaus (Eds.), Advances in enfrepreneurship, Firm Emergence, and Growth, 3 (pp.119–138). Greenwich: JAI Press.
Wang, M. C., & Fang, S. C. (2012). The moderating effect of environmental uncertainty on the relationship between network structures and the innovative performance of a new venture. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 27(4), 311-323.
Wang, Y. L., Ellinger, A. D., & Wu, Y. C. J. (2013). Entrepreneurial opportunity recognition: An empirical study of R & D personnel. Management Decision. 51(2), 248-266.
Wilken, P. H. (1979). Entrepreneurship: A comparative and historical study, Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Zahra, S. A. (1993). Environment, corporate entrepreneurship, and financial performance: A taxonomic approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(4), 319-340.
Zakerhaghighi, K., Khanian, M., & Gheitarani, N. (2015). Subjective quality of life; assessment of residents of informal settlements in Iran (A case study of Hesar Imam Khomeini, Hamedan). Applied Research in Quality of Life, 10(3), 419-434.
Zengyu Huang, V., Nandialath, A., Kassim Alsayaghi, A., & Esra Karadeniz, E. (2013). Socio-demographic factors and network configuration among MENA entrepreneurs. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 8(3), 258-281.