Tillage effects on energy use and greenhouse gas emission in wheat-cotton rotation

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Agricultural Engineering Research, Fars Research and Education Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources, AREEO, Shiraz, I. R. Iran


Crop production process utilizes input energy and produces some biomass energy as output.  During this process, greenhouse gases (GHGs) are also emitted which can make environmental risks. In this study, input and output energies, energy indices, and GHG emissions arising from inputs were estimated for wheat-cotton rotation under different tillage practices in Fars province. The study was conducted as a randomized complete plot experimental design with three tillage treatments and four replicates. Tillage methods included conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT), and no tillage (NT). Results showed that NT and RT decreased energy consumption in wheat and cotton production by 1.53 and 1.19%, respectively as compared to the CT due to less fuel and machinery utilization. More than 72% of energy requirement for wheat and cotton production was consumed by irrigation water and electricity for pumping irrigation water in all tillage methods. Conventional tillage resulted in the highest output energy, energy ratio, and energy productivity in wheat-cotton rotation compared to RT and NT. Total GHG emissions for wheat and cotton production were estimated to be 51829, 51608, and 51529 kg CO2e ha-1 in CT, RT, and NT, respectively indicating that NT and RT slightly reduced GHG emission compared to CT (0.6 and 0.4%, respectively). Results of this study indicated that irrigation showed the highest share in total energy requirement and GHG emission of wheat and cotton production in semi-arid climate condition of Fars province; therefore, total input energy and GHG emissions could be markedly reduced by using more efficient irrigation systems.    


Article Title [Persian]

اثر خاک ورزی بر مصرف انرژی و انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای در تناوب گندم-پنبه

Author [Persian]

  • صادق افضلی نیا
بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

-فرایند تولید محصولات کشاورزی با مصرف انرژی و تولید انرژی زیست توده به عنوان انرژی خروجی همراه است. در طی این فرایند، مقداری گاز گلخانه‌ای هم تولید می شود که محیط زیست را تهدید می کند. در این تحقیق، انرژی مصرفی و تولیدی، شاخص‌های انرژی و گازهای گلخانه‌ای متصاعد شده از مصرف انرژیهای ورودی در تناوب گندم-پنبه تحت تأثیر روش‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی در استان فارس تعیین گردید. تحقیق در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تیمار (روش‌های خاک‌ورزی) و چهار تکرار انجام شد. روش‌های خاک‌ورزی شامل خاک‌ورزی مرسوم (CT)، کم‌خاک‌ورزی (RT) و بی‌خاک‌ورزی (NT) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که روش‌های بی‌خاک‌ورزی و کم‌خاک‌ورزی انرژی مصرفی در تولید گندم و پنبه را نسبت به خاک‌ورزی مرسوم به ترتیب 53/1 و 19/1 درصد کاهش دادند که دلیل آن کاهش مصرف سوخت و ماشین‌های کشاورزی در این دو روش بود. بیش از 72 درصد از مصرف انرژی در تولید گندم و پنبه در تمام روش‌های خاک‌ورزی مربوط به آب آبیاری و برق مصرفی برای استحصال آب آبیاری بود. خاک‌ورزی مرسوم بیشترین انرژی تولیدی، راندمان انرژی و بهره‌وری انرژی را در تناوب گندم-پنبه به خود اختصاص داد. گازهای گلخانه‌ای متصاعد شده در تولید گندم و پنبه در روش‌های خاک‌ورزی مرسوم، کم‌خاک‌ورزی و بی‌خاک‌ورزی به ترتیب معادل 51829، 51608 و 51529 کیلوگرم گاز دی اکسید کربن در هکتار تخمین زده شد که نشان داد روش‌های بی‌خاک‌ورزی و کم‌خاک‌ورزی در مقایسه با روش خاک‌ورزی مرسوم تولید گازهای گلخانه‌ای را اندکی (به ترتیب 6/0 و 4/0 درصد) کاهش داده اند. همچنین، نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که آبیاری بیشترین سهم را در انرژی مصرفی و گازهای گلخانه‌ای تولیدی در فرایند تولید گندم و پنبه در اقلیم نیمه خشک استان فارس داشت. بنابراین، استفاده از روش های آبیاری با راندمان بالا می تواند مصرف انرژی و تولید گازهای گلخانه ای را به مقدار قابل توجهی کاهش دهد. 

Keywords [Persian]

  • خاک ورزی حفاظتی
  • پنبه
  • شاخص های انرژی
  • گندم
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