Effect of sulfonylurea herbicides residues on growth and yield of sunflower in rotation with wheat

Document Type : Research Paper


1 -Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding ,, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran

2 Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding ,, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran

3 Department of Plant Protection Department, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.


To evaluate the effect of residue of sulfonylurea herbicides and  wheat residues on the growth and yield of sunflower, a split factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications at the College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. The treatments included with and without wheat residues from the tested farm as the main plots, and a combination of three herbicides (Total, Apirus and Atlantis) and their concentrations (recommended and 30% overdose) which were considered as subplots. No herbicide treatment was used as control. The results showed that application of all herbicides reduced sunflower height, seed number and seed weight as well as seed yield of sunflower. The highest reduction in seed yield was recorded when Total  followed by Apirus residues were applied, which caused 95% and 80.6% yield reductions, respectively. Also, the minimum reduction of seed yield (32.7%) observed in Atlantis treatment. Moreover, 30% increase in herbicides dose caused increasing adverse effects and decreasing grain and biological yield compared to the recommended dose. Wheat residues incorporated to the soil increased damage of Atlantis by maintaining it in the soil (reduced seed yield from 3932.3 to 3556.9 kg/ha) and reduced damage of Total and Apirus by further degradation of these herbicides (increased seed yield from 235.4 to 311.6 kg/ha in Total treatment, and from 996.6 to 1161.3 kg/ha in Apirus treatment). But overall, wheat residues increased seed yield (2.1%) in comparison to the removal of plant residue. Therefore, addition of wheat residues as organic matter in the soil can affect the biological changes of herbicides.


Article Title [Persian]

اثر بقایای علف‌کش‌های سولفونیل اوره بر رشد و عملکرد آفتابگردان در تناوب با گندم

Authors [Persian]

  • صبحه غفارپور 1
  • سید عبدالرضا کاظمینی 2
  • حبیب االه حمزه زرقانی 3
1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات ، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج. ا. ایران
2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات ، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج. ا. ایران
3 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

به منظور ارزیابی اثر بقایای علف‌کش‌های سولفونیل اوره و بقایای گندم بر رشد و عملکرد آفتابگردان، آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 4 تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز انجام شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل با و بدون بقایای گندم و فاکتور فرعی شامل کاربرد علف‌کش‌های توتال، آپیروس و آتلانتیس در دو مقدار توصیه شده و 30 درصد بیشتر از مقدار توصیه شده بود. تیمار بدون علف‌کش نیز به عنوان شاهد در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که تمامی علف‌کش ‌ها باعث کاهش ارتفاع، تعداد دانه، وزن دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان شدند. بیشترین کاهش عملکرد دانه نسبت به شاهد در تیمار کاربرد علف‌کش توتال (95%) و پس از آن در تیمار آپیروس ( 6/80% ) مشاهده شد. کمترین میزان کاهش عملکرد دانه نیز مربوط به تیمار آتلانتیس با 7/32% بود. علاوه بر این، افزایش دوز علف‌کش باعث افزایش اثرات جانبی و کاهش عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک نسبت به دوز توصیه شده گردید. بقایای گندم در خاک باعث افزایش خسارت علف‌کش آتلانتیس از طریق نگهداری آن در خاک (کاهش عملکرد دانه از 3932.3 به 3556.9 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کاهش خسارت علف‌کش‌های توتال و آپیروس از طریق تجزیه بیشتر آنها (افزایش عملکرد دانه از 235.4 به 311.6 کیلوگرم در هکتار در توتال، و از 996.6 به 1161.3 کیلوگرم در هکتار در آپیروس) شد. اما به طور کلی، تیمار بقایای گندم در مقایسه با تیمار بدون بقایا، عملکرد دانه را 1/2% افزایش داد. بنابراین افزودن بقایای گندم به عنوان ماده آلی در خاک، بر تغییرات بیولوژیک علف-کش‌ها تاثیر می گذارد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه‌های کلیدی : آپیروس
  • آتلانتیس
  • بقایای گندم
  • توتال
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