Potassium status of two clayey calcareous soils treated with zeolite under wetting-drying cycles


1 Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Darab, Shiraz University, Darab, I. R. Iran

2 Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Yasouj, I. R. Iran


Zeolite application to clayey soils may change potassium (K) pools distribution and its release rate. To test this hypothesis, two heavy-textured calcareous soils with different mineralogy (smectitic and mixed by XRD) from southern Iran were selected. Experiment was a completely randomized factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of two soils and two zeolite levels (0 and 5%) and wetting-drying treatment. Soil samples were incubated in 50% of saturation percentage for 90 days. Then, three wetting-drying cycles were done on samples. Different forms of K and K release to 0.01 M CaCl2, HCl and CH3COOH by 12 successive 15 min extractions of soil samples were determined. Zeolite increased the content of different K forms in soil 1 (smectitic), while it increased soluble and exchangeable K and decreased non-exchangeable K in soil 2 (mixed mineralogy). This may be due to the high CEC (189 cmol(+)/kg) and K content (2.13% K2O) of the used zeolite. Wetting-drying cycles increased non-exchangeable K in soil 1 and exchangeable K in zeolite treated soils. CaCl2 extracted more K than HCl and CH3COOH solutions (682, 281 and 292 mg kg-1, respectively) because Ca ions are more efficient than H ions in replacing K from surface sites in the K-bearing minerals. Zeolite and wetting-drying had no effect on K release from soil 1 while they significantly decreased K release rate from soil 2.


Article Title [Persian]

وضعیت پتاسیم دو خاک آهکی رسی تیمار شده با زئولیت و چرخه‌های تری و خشکی

Authors [Persian]

  • مهدی نجفی قیری 1
  • حمید رضا اولیایی 2
1 بخش علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی داراب، دانشگاه شیراز، داراب، ج. ا. ایران
2 بخش علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

کاربرد زئولیت در خاکهای رسی می‌تواند توزیع شکل‌های پتاسیم و آهنگ آزادسازی آن را تغییر دهد. جهت بررسی این امر، دو خاک آهکی با بافت سنگین و کانی‌شناسی متفاوت (اسمکتیتی و مخلوط) از جنوب ایران انتخاب گردید. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی بود. تیمارها شامل دو خاک و دو سطح زئولیت (0 و 5 درصد) و تیمار تری و خشکی بود. نمونه‌های خاک به مدت 90 روز در حالت 50 درصد رطوبت اشباع نگهداری گردیدند. سپس سه چرخه تری و خشکی روی نمونه‌ها انجام شد. شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم و مقدار آزادسازی پتاسیم به‌وسیله عصاره‌گیرهای 0/01 مولار CaCl2، HCl و CH3COOH با 12 عصاره‌گیری پیوسته 15 دقیقه‌ای نمونه‌ها اندازه‌گیری گردید. زئولیت مقدار شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم را در خاک 1 (اسمکتیتی) افزایش داد و شکل‌های محلول و تبادلی را در خاک 2 (کانی‌شناسی مخلوط) افزایش اما پتاسیم غیرتبادلی را کاهش داد. این در نتیجه ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی بالا (189 سانتی‌مول بر کیلوگرم) و مقدار پتاسیم بالای آن (2/13 درصد اکسید پتاسیم) می‌باشد. چرخه‌های تری و خشکی مقدار پتاسیم غیرتبادلی را در خاک 1 و مقدار پتاسیم تبادلی را در خاکهای تیمار شده با زئولیت افزایش داد. عصاره‌گیر CaCl2 پتاسیم بیشتری را نسبت به عصاره‌گیرهای HCl و CH3COOH  استخراج کرد (به‌ترتیب 682، 281 و 292 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم)؛ زیرا یون‌های کلسیم کاراتر از یون‌های هیدوروژن در تبادل پتاسیم از سطوح کانی‌های پتاسیم‌دار هستند. زئولیت و چرخه‌های تری و خشکی تأثیری بر آزادسازی پتاسیم از خاک 1 نداشت اما سرعت آزادسازی پتاسیم از خاک 2 را به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش داد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • آزادسازی پتاسیم
  • چرخه‌های تری و خشکی زئولیت
  • خاکهای آهکی
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