Morpho-phenology and chromosome number of Iranian Bromus danthoniae Trin. genotypes

Document Type : Full Article


Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan I. R. Iran


ABSTRACT- Bromus danthoniae Trin. is an annual grass species which grows mainly on dry grassy rocky mountain slopes and grassy steppe, and is grazed by many herbivores and recognized as a useful pasture plant. The chromosome number, morphological and anatomical traits of 82 genotypes of B. danthoniae belonging to three sub-taxa were investigated. Twenty-seven quantitative and 20 qualitative morphological traits were evaluated. The results of analysis of variance showed that B. danthoniae genotypes varied significantly for all quantitatively tested traits. Based on cluster analysis, the genotypes were divided into four groups which mostly corresponded to their subspecies identities. According to correlation analysis, lemma length had strong positive correlations with other traits such as awn length (r=0.55**), lemma width (r=0.72**) and caryopsis length (r=0.84**). In addition, lemma width was significantly correlated with the traits like floret number per spikelet (r=0.47**) and caryopsis length (r=0.58**). Based on factor analysis, the first three factors encompass about 51% of total variation. Overall, lemma length and lemma width were the two reliable traits for morphological investigations in this species. The results of chromosome counting showed that B. danthoniae subsp. danthoniae and B. danthoniae var.lanuginusos Roshev. were diploid (2n=2x=14) whereas B. danthoniae subsp. pseudodanthoniae (Drobov) H. Scholz was tetraploid (2n=4x=28). The results of leaf surface anatomy showed that tetraploid genotypes had larger stomata but lower stomatal density than the diploid ones, thus a comprehensive relationship between genome size and guard cell size cannot be ruled out as a plausible explanation for differentiating the ploidy levels. The high morphological variations among the B. danthoniae genotypes explain the habitat distribution of this species and enable us to incorporate this knowledge into practice by exploiting the variation for improvement of pasture production.


Article Title [Persian]

تنوع مورفو-فنولوژی و عددکروموزومی در ژنوتیپ‌های ایرانی Bromus danthoniae Trin

Authors [Persian]

  • معصومه رضایی
  • احمد ارزانی
  • قدرت اله سعیدی
گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده-گونه Bromus danthoniae Trin. گراس یکساله است که اساساً در شیب­ها و دامنه­های صخره­ای خشک و مناطق استپی رشد می­کند، توسط بسیاری از حیوانات چرا شده و به عنوان یک گیاه مرتعی کارا شناخته می­شود.  عدد کروموزومی و صفات مورفولوژی و آناتومی 82 ژنوتیپ از این گونه (شامل سه زیر گونه) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و تعداد 27 صفت کمی و 20 صفت کیفی اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد ژنوتیپ­های مورد مطالعه در همه صفات کمی آزمون شده تفاوت معنی دار داشته­اند. بر مبنای نتایج حاصل از تجزیه کلاستر ژنوتیپ­ها در چهار گروه قرار گرفتند که عمدتاً با گروه­بندی بر اساس زیرگونه­ مطابقت داشت. همچنین نتایج حاصل از بررسی همبستگی­ها نشان داد طول لما همبستگی مثبت و بالایی با صفات دیگر مانند طول سیخک (55/0=r)، عرض لما (72/0=r) و طول دانه (84/0=r) داشت. علاوه بر آن، عرض لما همبستگی بالا و معنی­داری با سایر صفات مانند تعداد گل در سنبلچه (47/0=r) و طول دانه (58/0=r) داشت. نتایج تجزیه به عامل­ها نشان داد سه عامل اول توانست در مجموع 51% از تنوع کل را توجیه کند. بطور کل، صفات طول و عرض لما قابل اعتماد ترین صفات در مطالعات مورفولوژی این گونه بوده است. همچنین نتایج نشان داد B. danthoniae subsp. danthoniae و B. danthoniae var.lanuginusos Roshev. دیپلویید (14=x2=n2)، در حالیکه B. danthoniae subsp. pseudodanthoniae (Drobov) H. Scholz تتراپلویید (24=x4=n2) است. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از بررسی­های آناتومی سطح برگ، ژنوتیپ­ تتراپلویید دارای اندازه روزنه بزرگتر و تراکم روزنه کمتر نسبت به ژنوتیپ­های دیپلویید بود. بنابراین وجود ارتباط جامع بین اندازه ژنوم و اندازه سلول­های نگهبان روزنه به عنوان معیاری برای تمایز سطوح پلوییدی متفاوت این گونه رد نخواهد شد. تنوع مورفولوژی بالا بین ژنوتیپ­های مطالعه شده، پراکندگی وسیع رشدی آن را توصیف کرده و ما را قادر می­سازد که با استفاده از این گیاه در برنامه­های اصلاحی گیاهان، تولیدات مرتعی را افزایش دهیم.

Keywords [Persian]

  • تنوع ژنتیکی
  • سطح پلوئیدی
  • مرتع
  • Bromus danthoniae
  • گندمیان
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