Effect of temperature and inoculum density on disease intensity of Phytophthora parsiana

Document Type : Full Article


Department of Plant Protection, Collage of Agriculture, Shiraz University Shiraz, I.R. Iran


ABSTRACT- The effects of inoculum density and temperature on the disease intensity of Phytophthora parsiana on almond seedlings were investigated. Almond seeds (Rabie and Kaghazi cultivars) were placed in moist vermiculite at 4°C for 45 days. Germinated seeds were sown in a soil: sand mixture (2:1 v/v) and grown in greenhouse (18°C-25°C). One-month-old seedlings were transferred from the greenhouse to the growth chambers set at 15, 18, 20, 25,30 and 32°C. The seedlings were subsequently inoculated either with mycelium of P. parsiana grown for 4-6 weeks on vermiculite amended with hemp seed extract or with zoospore (103, 104, 105 and 106 ml-1) by root dip method. The effect of temperature, inoculum density and their interaction on seedling mortality was measured. The results indicated that all three factors had significant effects on seedling mortality. While the highest disease incidence (100% mortality in almond seedlings) occurred at 30°C and 32°C, no mortality was observed at 15°C and18°C. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 30°C and inoculum rate from 103 to 106 zoospores ml-1 increased disease incidence significantly. Higher temperatures and inoculum densities also caused significant increases in the colonization level of the crown, main and lateral roots as well as reductions in the fresh and dry root weights of the seedlings.


Article Title [Persian]

اثر دما و تراکم اینوکلوم بر شدت بیماری زایی Phytophthora parsiana

Authors [Persian]

  • وحیده رفیعی
  • ضیاءالدین بنی هاشمی
  • حبیب اله حمزه زرقانی
گروه گیاهپزشکی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده-در این مطالعه، اثرات غلظت های مختلف مایه و دماهای مختلف، بر شدت بیماری زایی گونهPhytophthora parsiana  روی بادام مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای این منظور بذور بادام (ارقام ربیع و کاغذی)در ورمی کولیت مرطوب در دمای°C4 به مدت 45 روز نگهداری شد. بذور جوانه زده در گلدان های حاوی خاک ماسه به نسبت 1:2 کشت داده شد و در گلخانه در دمای °C 25-18 تا رشد کامل نگهداری شدند. یک ماه پس از رشد، نهال ­ها به اتاقک های رشد با دماهای 15، 18، 20، 25، 30 و °C 32 منتقل و گلدان ها به دو روش، با ریختن عصاره شاهدانه– ورمی کولیت حاوی بلوک های کشت بیمارگر در پای طوقه و یا با غلظت های مختلف زئوسپور شامل 103، 104، 105 و 106 اسپور در میلی لیتر به روشroot dip مایه زنی شدند. نتایج نشان داد افزایش دما و تراکم مایه و برهمکنش آنها  به طور معنی داری بر مرگ و میر دانهال ها تاثیر دارد .  دامنه دمایی°C32-30  سبب مرگ و میر 100 درصدی دانهال های بادام شد، در حالیکه در دامنه دمایی ºC 20-15، هیچگونه مرگ و میر دانهال های بادام مشاهده نگردید. با افزایش دما از 20 به °C30 و افزایش غلظت زئوسپور از 103 به 106 در میلی لیتر، وقوع بیماری به طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. دماهای بالا و مقدار مایه بالاتر 106در میلی لیتر سبب کاهش معنی دار وزن تر و خشک ریشه و نیز درصد آلودگی ریشه‌های فرعی، اصلی و طوقه  گردید.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه‏های کلیدی:
  • بادام
  • بیماری‌زایی
  • پوسیدگی ریشه
  • دمای بالا
Abad, Z.G., Abad, J.A., Cacciola, S.O., Pane A., Faedda, R., Moralejo, E., Pérez Sierra, A., Abad Campos, P., Alvarez Bernaola, L.A., Bakonyi, J., Józsa, A., Herrero, ML., Burgess, T.I., Cunnington, J., Smith, I., Balci, Y., Blomquist, C., Henricot, B., Denton, G., Spies, C., Mcleod, A., Belbahri, L., Cooke, D., Kageyama, K., Uematsu, S., Kurbetli, I., & Değirmenci, K. (2014). Phytophthora niederhauserii sp. nov., a polyphagous species associated with ornamentals, fruit trees and native plants in 13 countries. Mycologia, 106, 431-47.
Banihashemi, Z., & Fatehi, J. (1989). Reaction of cucurbit cultivars to Phytophthora drechsleri and P.capsici in greenhouse. Proceeding of the 9thIraninan Plant Protection Congress. (Abstract).
Banihashemi, Z. and Ghiasi, K. 1993. Identification of Phytophthora disease of fig in Bushehr province. Proceeding of the 11thIraninan Plant Protection Congress. Rasht, Iran. 218 (Abstract).
Banihashemi, Z. (2004). A method to monitor the activity of Phytophthora spp. in the root zone of Pistacia spp. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 43, 411-414.
Banihashemi, Z., Hajebrahimi, S., Mostowfizadeh Ghalamfarsa, R., & Mohammadi, A. (2009). Phytophthora parsiana a high temperature species, a new threat to Pistaciavera and its host range. 5th International Symposium on Pistachios & Almonds. Sanliurfa, Turkey.
Belbahri, L., Moralejo, E., Calmin, G., Oszako, T., Garcia, J., Descals, E., & Lefort, F. (2006). Phytophthora polonica, a new species isolated from declining Alnusglutinosastanda in Poland. FEMS Microbiology Letter, 261, 165-174.
Clewer, A. (2001). Practical statistics and experimental design for plant and crop science. Wiley.
Dhingra, O.D., & Sinclair, J.B. (1985). Basic Plant Pathology methods. (2sted) CRC press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Ferguson, A.J., & Jeffers, S.N. (1999). Detecting multiple species of Phytophthora in container mixes from ornamental crop nurseries. Plant Disease, 83, 1129-1136.
Gooding, G.V., & Lucas, G.B. (1959). Factors influencing sporangial formation zoospore activity in Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotiana. Phytopathology, 49, 277-281.
Hajebrahimi, S., & Banihashemi, Z. (2011). Host range of Phytophthora parsiana: a new high temperature pathogene of woody plants. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 50, 159-165.
Harris, D.C., & Tobutt, K.R. (1986). Factors influencing the mortality of apple seedlings inoculated with zoospores of Phytophthora cactorum. Scientia. Horticulturea, 61, 457-464.
Hong, C.X., Gallegly, M.E., Richardson, P.A., Kong, P., Moorman, G.W. (2008). Phytophthora irrigata, a new species isolated from irrigation reservoirs and rivers in eastern united statses of America. FEMS Microbialogy Letter, 258, 203-211.
Hong,C.X., Gallegly, M.E., Richardson, P.A., Kong, P., Moorman G.W., Lea Cox, J.D., & Ross, D.S. (2010). Phytophthora hydropathica, a new pathogenic identified from irrigation water, Rhododendron catawbiense and kalmia latifolia. Plant Pathology, 59, 913-021.
Hüberli, D., Hayden, K.J., Calver, M.,  & Garbelotto, M. (2012). Intraspecific variation in host susceptibility and climatic factors mediate epidemics of sudden oak death in western US forests. Plant Pathology, 61, 579-592.
Kuan, T.L., & Erwin, D.C. (1980). Predisposition effect of water saturation of soil on Phytophthora root rot of alfalfa. Phytopathology, 70, 981-986.
Kliejunans, J.T., & Ko, W.H. (1974). Effect of motility of Phytophthora palmivora zoospores on disease severity in papaya seedlings and substrate colonization in soil. Phytopathology, 64, 426-428.
Kurbetli, I., & Değirmenci, K. (2011). First report of Phytophthora taxon niederhauseriicausing decline of almond in Turkey. British Society for Plant Pathology, 23, 14.
Matheron M.E., & Matejka, J.C. (1992). Effects of temperature on sporulation and growth of Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica and development of foot and root on citrus. Plant Disease, 76, 1103-1109.
Matheron, M.E., & Porchas, M. (1996). Colonization of citrus roots by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica in daily soil temperature fluctuations between favorable and inhibitory levels. Plant Disease, 80, 1135-1140.
Mitchell, D.J., & Kannwischer, M.E. (1983). Relationship of inoculums density of Phytophthoraspecies to disease incidence in various hosts. Pages: 259-269 in: Phytophthora. Its Biology, Taxonomy, Ecology and Pathology. D. C. Erwin, S.
Bartnicki-Garcia, and Tsao. P.H. eds. American Phytopathological Society Press, StPaulMinnesota.
Mostowfizadeh Ghalamfarsa, R., Cook, D.E.L., & Banihashemi, Z. (2008). Phytophthora parsiana sp. nov., a new high-temperature tolerant species. Mycological Research, 112,783-749.
Perez Sierra, A., Leon, M., Alvarez, L.A., Alnaiz, S., Berbegal, M., Garcia Jimenez, J., & Abad Compos, P. (2010). Outbreak of a new Phytophthora sp. associated with severe decline of almond trees in eastern Spain. Plant Disease, 94, 534-541.
Rafiei, V., Banihashemi, Z., & Zarghani, H.H. (2012). The effect of temperature on pathogenicity of of Phytophthora parsiana. 20th Iranian Plant Protection Congress. Shiraz University. Iran (Abstract).
Rafiei, V., & Banihashemi, Z. (2012). Distribution of Phytophthora parsiana in southern provinces of Iran. 20th Iranian Plant Protection Congress. Shiraz University. Iran (Abstract).
Rafiei V., & Banihashemi, Z. (2013). Phytophthora parsiana, a new threat to almond trees and its host range expansion. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 48, 191-196.
Raftoyannis, Y., & Dick, M.W. (2002). Effects of inoculum density, plant age and temperature on disease severity caused by Pythiaceous fungi on several plants. Phytoparasitica, 30, 67-76.
Rahimzadeh, F., Nassaji Zavareh., M. (2014). Effects of adjustment for non-climatic discontinuities on determination of temperature trends and variability over Iran. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 2079–2096.
Ramirez, Z.B.N., & Mitchell, D.J. (1975). Relationship of density of chlamydospore and zoospore of Phytophthora palmivora in soil to infection of papaya. Phytopathology, 65, 780-785.
SAS Institute Inc. (1999). SAS/STAT user’s guide, version 8.Cary.
Shew, H.D., & Benson, D.M. (1983). Influence of soil temperature and inoculum density of Phytophthora cinnamomi on root rot of Fraser fir. Plant Disease, 67, 522-524.
Thomidis, T. (2003). Influence of temperature and bark injuries on the development of Phytophthora cactorum and P. citrophthora on peach trees. Scientia Horticulturea, 98, 347-355.
Zentmyer, G.A. (1981). The effect of temperature on growth and pathogenesis of Phytophthora cinnamomi and on growth of its avocado host. Phytopathology, 71, 925-928.