Evaluation of different growth media for tomato seedlings to optimize production and water use

Document Type : Full Article


Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Karaj, I. R. Iran


ABSTRACT- Soilless cultivation systems are used to attain higher performance, improve crop quality, conserve water and land, and protect the environment better. This study has attempted to use some agricultural wastes and organic matter, and management practices to optimize water holding capacity of cultural media, which are suitable for the growth of tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum.). Fifteen different substrate (growth media) mixtures with a mineral fraction (sand and perlite) and organic fractions (bagasse, oak tree bark, poplar wood chips) were prepared and compared. Sand (2-4mm) and perlite (4-6 mm) were mixed at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 percent volume ratios with organic fractions at 0, 30 and 60 percent. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 15 treatments and 3 replications with 6 observations per treatment. During the seedling growth period (45 days), every 7 days, 90 seedlings were harvested (data for three periods were used) to determine the effect of the growth media on different growth parameters(plant dry matter and leaf area) and indices (RGR, NAR, and SER). The growth rate of tomato seedlings generally increased over time the rate of which varied with treatments. Seedling height, stem diameter, plant fresh weight and dry matter indicated that the highest length (25.91 cm) and diameter (4.83 cm) of the tomato seedlings was in treatment eight (S30P10T30B0C30). It was also shown that the sand fraction as a mineral component had a better performance compared to perliter in growth parameters. For the organic component of the growth media, tree bark treatments were better than wood chips or bagasse. The bagasse treatment had the lowest fresh weight and dry weight of shoot and root. The treatments with water holding capacity of 90-100% showed the best response in the growth of tomato seedlings.


Article Title [Persian]

ارزیابی بسترهای کشت مختلف برای رشد نشاء گوجه فرنگی در جهت بهینه سازی تولید و مصرف آب

Authors [Persian]

  • حسین میر سید حسینی
  • الهام علوی پور
  • مجتبی دلشاد
گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده-سیستم‌های کشت بدون خاک برای رسیدن به عملکردبیشترباکیفیت بهتر، صرفه جویی در مصرف آب و زمین و حفاظت بهتر از محیطزیست به وجود آمده‌اند. ظرفیت نگهداری پایین آب بسترهای مورد استفاده در سیستمهای کشت بدون خاک باعث افزایش هدررفت آب و تنش در این کشت ها می‌شود .تنظیم دور آبیاری و مدیریت محلول رسانی می‌تواند سبب کاهش مشکلات احتمالی گردد. در این تحقیق تلاش شده است تا بااستفاده از ضایعات کشاورزی و مواد آلی و مدیریت محلول‌دهی براساس ظرفیت نگهداری رطوبت بستر، بسترهای کشت مناسب جهت رشد نشاء گوجه فرنگی (Solanum Lycopersicon Mill) تهیه و عملکرد آنها بررسی گردد. جهت تهیه این بسترها باگاسنی شکر، پوست درخت بلوط و تراشه چوب صنوبر در نسبت‌های حجمی مختلف با ماسه و پرلیت مخلوط و در قالب یک طرح کاملاتصادفی با 15تیمار و 3 تکرار و 6 مشاهده در کشت نشاء مورد آزمایش قرار گرفت. محلول غذایی براساس فرمول تهیه و درفرکانس‌های زمانی مشخص در اختیارگیاه قرار ‌گرفت، هر7 روز 90 نشاء برداشت و اثر بسترها مورد بررسی قرار ‌گرفت. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین طول و قطرنشای گوجه فرنگی مربوط به تیمار 8 (S30P10T30B0C30) بود و از نظر بخش معدنی ماسه نسبت به پرلیت در افزایش شاخص‌های رشد گیاه موثرتر بود. از نظر بخش آلینتایج نشان دهنده‌ی مطلوب بودن پوست درخت نسبت به تیمارهای دیگر بود و تیمارهای حاوی باگاس کمترین وزن تر و وزن خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه را به خود اختصاص دادند. تیمارهای با ظرفیت نگهداری رطوبت 90-100% بهترین واکنش را نسبت به رشد گیاهچه های گوجه فرنگی نشان دادند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه های کلیدی:
  • کشت بدون خاک
  • ضایعات کشاورزی
  • ظرفیت نگهداریرطوبت
  • باگاس
Albaho, M.S., Thomas, B., & Christopher, A. (2008). Evaluation of hydroponic techniques on growth and productivity of greenhouse grown bell pepper and strawberry. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 14(1), 23-40.
Black,  A.L., Miller, R.H., & Keeney, D.R.  (1989). Methods of soil analysis part 2. ASA, I. SSSA.
Cid-Ballarin, M.C., Socorro Monzon, A.R., & Zieslin, N. (1995). Changes in nutrient solution caused by volcanic cinder media of soilless greenhouse roses. In the canary Canary Islands. Acta  Horticulture, 424, 107-110.
Delshad, M., Alifattahi, R., Taghavi, T., & Parsinezhad, M. (2011). Improving water use efficiency in irrigation scheduling strawberries in soilless culture. Journal of Horticultural Science (Agricultural Sciences and Technology), 25, 18-24.
Gauar, A.C., Neelakantan, S., & Dargan, K.S. (1990). Organic Manures. ICRA, New Delhi.
Gul, A., Kidoglu, F., & Anac, D. (2007). Effect of nutrient sources on cucumber production in different substrates. Horticultural Science. 113,  216-220.
Heydari, N., Islami, A., Ghadami Firozabadi, A., & Kanoni, A. (2006). Efficient crops in different regions of the country. First National Conference on Irrigation and Drainage Networks. (in Persian).
Inden, H., & Torres, A. (2004). Comparison of four substrates on the growth and quality of tomatoes. Acta Horticulture, 644, 205-210.
Islam, M.D.S., Khan, S., Ito, T., Maruo, T., & Shinohara, Y. (2002). Characterization of the physicochemical properties of environmentally friendly organic substrate in relation to rockwool. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 116, 215-221.
Kang, J.Y., Lee, H.H., & Kim, K.H. (2004). Physical and chemical properties of organic horticultural substrates used in Korea. International Symposium Growing Media and Hydroponics. Acta Horticulture, (644), 231-235.
Khalighi, A., & Padasht, M. (2000). Effect ssubstrates derived from tree bark, tea wastes, bark, rice and Azollaas an alternative topeatin the development of dwarfmari gold. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47, 555-567.
Lax, A., Roig, A., & Coasta, F. (1986). A method for determining the Cation exchange capacity of organic materials. Plant and Soils, (94), 349-355.
Luo, H.T., & Bohme, M. (2001). Influence of humic acid on the growth of tomato in hydroponic systems. Acta Horticulture, 548, 451-458.
Mitchell, J.P., Shennan, S.R., & May, D.M. (1991). Tomato fruit yields and quality under water deficit and salinity of plant substrates. Acta Horticulture, 302, 169-179.
Olaniyi, J.O., Akanbi, W.B., Adejumo, T.A., & Ak, O.G. (2010). Growth, fruit yield and nutritional quality of tomato varieties. African Journal of Food Science, 4(6), 398-402
Papadopoulos, A.P. (1994). Growing greenhouse tomatoes in soil and in soilless media Minister of supply and services Canada. Canada. No. A53-186511991E.ISBN O-662-18859-4.91.
Papadopoulos. A. P. & Hao, X. (2002). Interactions between nutrition and environmental conditions in hydroponics. Pages 411–443 in D. Savas and H. Passam, eds. Hydroponic production of vegetables and ornamentals. Embryo Publications, Athens, Greece
Pete, M.M., & Willits, D.H. (1995). Role of excess water in tomato fruit cracking. Horticultural Science , (30), 65-68.
Radawn, A.A., Hassan, A.A., & Malash, N.M. (1979). Physiological studies on tomato fruit firmness, total soluble solids and vitamin C contents. Research Bulletin. No (1063). Faculty of Agriculture, AinSham University, Cairo. Egypt. Acta Horticulture, 548, 173-179.
Resh, H.M. (2004). Hydroponic Food Production, Newconcept Press, Inc., ISBN-10. 093123199X, Mahwah, NJ., U. S. A.
Resh, H.M. (1993). Hydroponic Food Production, 5th ed. Woodbridge Press, Santa Barbara, CA.
Ribeiro, H.M., Romero, A.M., Pereira, H., Borges, P., Cabral, F., & Vasconcelos, E. (2007). Evaluation of a compost obtained from forestry wastes and solid phase of pig slurry as a substrate for seedlings production. Bioresource Technology, 98(17), 3294-3297.
Samiei, I., Khalighi, A., Kafi, M., Samavat, S., & Arghavani, M. (2005). Investigate the possibility of using waste cellulosic as a substitute for peat moss in growing media for ornamental plant leaves Aglaonema (Aglaonema commutatum Cv. Silver Queen). Journal of Agricultural Sciences, (In Persian), (2) 36, 503-510.
Sterrett, S.B. (2001). Compost as horticultural substrates for vegetable transplant production. Compost Utilization in Horticultural Cropping Systems. 227-240.
Tuzel, I.H., Tuzel, Y., Gul, A., & Eltez. R.Z. (2001). Effects of  different irrigation schedules, substrate  and  substrate volumes on yield and fruit quality of tomatoes, Acta Horticulture,  548, 285-292.
Verdonck, O., Vleeschauwer, D., & Boodt, M. (1982). The influence of the substrates to plant growth. Acta Horticulture, 126, 251-258
Verdonck, O., & Gabriels, R. (1992). Reference method for the determination of physical properties of plant substrates. II. Reference method for the determination of chemical properties of plant substrates. Acta Horticulture, 302, 169-179.
Verdonck, O., & Demeyer, P. (2004) P.The infuence of the particle sizes on phisical properties of growing media. Acta Horticulture,  644, 99-101
Youssefian, Z., Mobli, M., & Aghdak, P.  (2009). Effect of different planting bed and hydrogel on vegetative and reproductive traits Cherry. First National Congress of the Hydroponic and Greenhouse Production.(In Persian), Isfahan, Iran.October.28-30.