Response of cereals to cycocel application (Review article)

Document Type : Review Article


1 National Salinity Research Center, Yazd, I. R. Iran

2 Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, I. R. Iran

3 Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


ABSTRACT- Growth retardants are natural or synthetic chemical substances which are directly applied to crops to alter some structural processes. It is expected that these alterations modify hormonal balance and growth leading to increased yield, improved crop quality or facilitated harvesting. Cycocel (CCC) or chlormequat chloride (2-chloro ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) as a synthetic growth retardant has been recommended for wheat since 1960s. Cycocel inhibits gibberellin biosynthesis via blocking ent-kaurene synthesis in the metabolic pathway of gibberellin production, resulting in reduced amounts of active gibberellins and consequent reduction in stem elongation. The stem shortening effect of cycocel in such cereals as wheat seems to be less important, due to release of many dwarf and semi dwarf wheat cultivars. However, using cycocel in cereal fields would be inevitable if its effect on grain yield is definite and this area needs further investigation. Importance of cycocel is greater under environmental stress conditions, and more research needs to be focused on cycocel-induced stress tolerance. In this paper, the current knowledge and possible applications of cycocel, which can be used to improve the growth and yield of cereals, have been reviewed and discussed. The role of cycocel to mitigate the harmful effects of drought and salt stresses in cereals is also examined. Furthermore, various biochemical and physiological processes leading to improved cereal crop production under the influence of cycocel are discussed.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

پاسخ غلات به کاربرد سایکوسل (مقاله مروری)

Authors [Persian]

  • هادی پیرسته انوشه 1
  • یحیی امام 2
  • عبدل خلیق 3
1 مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری، یزد
2 بخش زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج.ا. ایران
3 دانشگاه کشاورزی فیصل آباد
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده- کندکننده­های رشد مواد شیمیایی ساخته شده یا طبیعی­ هستند که به طور مستقیم با هدف تغییر برخی فرآیندهای ساختاری گیاه زراعی به­کار می­روند. انتظار می­رود که این مواد تعادل هورمون­ها و رشد را در گیاه بهبود بخشیده منجر به افزایش عملکرد بهبود کیفیت محصول و یا تسهیل در برداشت گیاه زراعی شوند. سایکوسل (CCC) یا کلرمکوات کلراید (2-کلرو اتیل تریمیتیل آمونیم کلرید) به عنوان یک کندکننده رشد ساخته شده از دهه 1960 میلادی برای کاربرد در مزارع گندم پیشنهاد شده است. سایکوسل از راه متوقف کردن ساخت انت-کائرن در مسیر متابولیکی تولید جیبرلین از بیوسنتر جیبرلین جلوگیری می­کند؛ این امر باعث کاهش مقدار جیبرلین فعال و در نتیجه کاهش رشد طولی ساقه می­گردد. به نظر می­رسد هم اکنون با معرفی ارقام متعدد پاکوتاه و نیمه پاکوتاه در برخی غلات مانند گندم، کاربرد سایکوسل با هدف کاهش ارتفاع ساقه از اهمیت کمتری برخوردارباشد. بااین وجود، اگر تاثیر مثبت سایکوسل بر عملکرد دانه قطعیت بیشتری یابد، استفاده از آن در مزارع غلات اجتناب ناپذیر خواهد بود؛ که این موضوع نیازمند انجام پژوهش­های بیشتری است. اهمیت سایکوسل درشرایط تنش های محیطی بیشتر است و چگونگی درک تحمل به تنش القا شده توسط سایکوسل نیاز به پژوهش­های تکمیلی دارد. در این مقاله، دانش حاضر و کاربردهای ممکن سایکوسل را که بتواند برای بهبود رشد و عملکرد غلات استفاده شود، مرور شده و مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. همچنین، نقش سایکوسل در کاهش اثرات زیان بارتنش­های خشکی و شوری در غلات بررسی شده است. علاوه بر این، تنظیم فرآیندهای بیوشیمیایی و فیزیولوژیک ،تحت تاثیر سایکوسل، که منجر به بهبود تولید غلات می شود مورد بحث قرار گرفته است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه های کلیدی:
  • آنتی‌جیبرلین
  • تنش‌های غیرزیستی
  • کلرمکوات‌کلراید
  • کندکننده‌رشد
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