The performance and inhibitors of the new agricultural extension system: Towards empowering small-scale farmers in Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. Iran

2 Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran, I.R. Iran



Agriculture is an essential instrument for development, poverty alleviation, and food security in developing countries, such as Iran. The agricultural sector of Iran is dominated by small-scale farming, and the yield of most crops is low. A well-designed and well-functioning agricultural extension system can facilitate the transition toward productive, profitable, and sustainable agriculture. However, the top-down agricultural extension system of Iran has left most smallholder and resource-poor farmers with no access to advisory services, and their problems have remained unresolved. The new agricultural extension system (NAES) was initiated in 2014 to better respond to the problems of smallholder farmers. However, there is still no definite reflection on the influences of the NAES on agricultural development. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of the NAES. Also, it purposed to identify the blocking mechanisms hindering the NAES’ function. In this regard, qualitative research was planned and conducted in Fars Province, Southern Iran. The findings revealed that NAES has managed to enhance the availability of extension services for smallholder farmers, improve the productivity and profitability of agriculture, and reduce livelihood vulnerability. However, it has failed in facilitating access to remunerative markets, mobilizing sustainable financial and human resources, and being entirely demand-driven because of financial, physical, institutional, market, natural, informational, capability, and psychological constraints. Some recommendations and implications are offered to improve the effectiveness of the NAES.


Article Title [Persian]

عملکرد و بازدارنده‌های نظام نوین ترویج کشاورزی: به‌سوی توانمندسازی کشاورزان خرده‌پا در ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • ناهید جعفری 1
  • عزت اله کرمی 1
  • مرضیه کشاورز 2
  • شبیر کرمی 1
1 بخش ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج.ا. ایران
2 گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ج.ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

کشاورزی ابزاری ضروری برای توسعه، فقرزدایی و امنیت غذایی در کشورهای در حال توسعه همچون ایران است. با این حال، کشاورزی کوچک‌مقیاس همچنان در ایران رواج داشته و عملکرد بیشتر محصولات زراعی پایین است. استقرار نظام ترویج کشاورزی کارآمد و دارای طرح‌ریزی مناسب می تواند گذار به سوی کشاورزی مولد، سودآور و پایدار را تسهیل کند اما حاکمیت نظام ترویج کشاورزی فرمایشی در ایران، اکثر کشاورزان خرده مالک و فقیر را از دسترسی به خدمات مشاوره ای محروم نموده و مشکلات این قشر حل نشده باقی مانده است. نظام نوین ترویج کشاورزی در سال 2014 و به‌منظور پاسخگویی بهتر به مشکلات کشاورزان خرده‌پا آغاز به‌کار نمود. با این حال، اثرات نظام نوین ترویج بر توسعه کشاورزی به‌صورتی دقیق مورد واکاوی قرار نگرفته است. بنابراین، این مطالعه با هدف ارزیابی عملکرد نظام نوین ترویج کشاورزی و شناسایی بازدارنده‌های پیشروی این نظام انجام شد. در این راستا، پژوهشی کیفی در استان فارس، جنوب ایران طرح‌ریزی و اجرا گردید. یافته‌ها نشان داد که نظام نوین ترویج کشاورزی توانسته است دسترسی کشاورزان خرده‌مالک به خدمات ترویجی را افزایش دهد، بهره‌وری و سودآوری کشاورزی را بهبود بخشد و آسیب‌پذیری معیشتی را کاهش دهد. با این حال، به دلیل محدودیت‌های مالی، فیزیکی، نهادی، بازار، طبیعی، اطلاعاتی، صلاحیتی و روانی، در تسهیل دسترسی به بازارهای سودآور، بسیج منابع مالی و انسانی پایدار، و تبدیل نظام ترویج به نظامی کاملا تقاضامحور ناکام مانده است. برخی توصیه ها برای بهبود اثربخشی نظام نوین ترویج کشاورزی ارائه شده است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • ساز و کارهای بازدارنده
  • شایستگی‌ها و ناکامی‌ها
  • کشاورزان خرده‌پا
  • نظام نوین ترویج کشاورزی
  • نظام‌های کشاورزی
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