Effect of fertilizer management and the application of zeolite on agronomic traits and grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids under deficit irrigation conditions

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, I. R. Iran

2 Department of Plant Nutrition, Soil and Water Research Institute, Karaj, I. R. Iran

10.22099/iar.2020.33290.1351

Abstract

Drought stress is considered as the most important limiting factor for growing of crops such as maize. Under low irrigation conditions, proper nutrition of plants can improve the effects of drought stress. This experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effect of nutrition management along with application of zeolite on agronomic traits of two hybrids of maize under deficit irrigation conditions in a field research in Soil and Water Research Institute in Karaj, Iran in 2015 and 2016 via a factorial split-plot plan based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental treatments included two levels of irrigation; full irrigation (I1) and deficit irrigation (70% of full irrigation) (I2) as the main factor and  factorial combination of fertilizer application at five levels; application of fertilizer in the conventional method (F1), fertilization application in conventional method + 10 tons of zeolite.ha-1 (F2), fertilizer application based on local recommendation (F3), fertilizer application based on local recommendation + 10 tons of zeolite.ha-1 (F4) and control (without fertilizer) (F5). Besides, maize hybrids including a late hybrid (SC704) (H1) and an early maturity hybrid (260 = Fajr) (H2) were considered as sub-factors. The results of analysis of variance showed that deficit irrigation had a significant effect on grain yield, number of grain.ear-1, ear weight, number of ear.m-2, and fertility of florets, while under deficit irrigation condition the values of these traits decreased. Under deficit irrigation treatment, the highest grain yield of maize hybrids (7934.3 and 7793.8 kg.ha-1 for 704 and 260 hybrids, respectively) was obtained from recommended fertilizer application + zeolite, which were 7% and 15% less than grain yield of corresponding maize hybrids (8180 and 9170.29 kg.ha-1 for 704 and 260 hybrids, respectively) where recommended application of fertilizer + zeolite were used under full irrigation condition. In general, the appropriate fertilizer management with the application of 10 tons of zeolite.ha-1 led to a higher grain yield of both late and early hybrids of maize and saving 30% water consumption (up to 2100 m3.ha-1). 

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

تأثیر مدیریت کود و کاربرد زئولیت بر صفات زراعی و عملکرد دانه ارقام ذرت (Zea mays L.) در شرایط کم آبیاری

Authors [Persian]

  • محمدحسن قدسی 1
  • مسعود اصفهانی 1
  • محمد مهدی طهرانی 2
  • علی اعلمی 1
1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات ، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ج. ا. ایران
2 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب ایران بخش تغذیه، کرج، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده- ت
تنش خشکی به عنوان مهمترین عامل محدود کننده برای رشد محصولاتی مانند ذرت در نظر گرفته می شود. در شرایط کم آبیاری ، تغذیه مناسب گیاهان می تواند اثر تنش خشکی را بهبود بخشد. این تحقیق به منظور بررسی اثر مدیریت تغذیه و مصرف زئولیت بر صفات زراعی دو رقم ذرت در شرایط کم‌آبیاری در سال‌های 1394 و 1395 در موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب ایران به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل دو سطح آبیاری، آبیاری کامل (I1) و کم‌آبیاری (70% آبیاری کامل ) (I2) بعنوان عامل اصلی و ترکیب فاکتوریل سطوح مصرف کود: به شیوه رایج زارعین منطقه (F1)، شیوه رایج + 10 تن در هکتار زئولیت (F2)، شیوه توصیه شده (F3)، شیوه توصیه شده + 10 تن در هکتار زئولیت (F4) و شاهد (بدون مصرف کود) (F5) و ارقام‌ ذرت: دیررس (704) (H1) و زودرس (فجر=260) (H2) بعنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که کم‌آبیاری بر عملکرد دانه، تعداد ردیف دانه در بلال، وزن بلال، تعداد بلال در مترمربع و باروری گل‌ها تاثیر معنی دار داشت و در مقایسه با شرایط آبیاری کامل کلیه این صفات کاهش نشان دادند. در شرایط کم آبیاری بیشترین عملکرد دانه ارقام ذرت از تیمار مصرف کود توصیه شده + زئولیت حاصل شد (ارقام 704 و 260 به ترتیب: 3/7934 و 8/7793 کیلوگرم در هکتار) که نسبت به تیمار کودی توصیه شده + زئولیت در شرایط آبیاری کامل (8180 و 9170.29 کیلوگرم در هکتار به ترتیب برای 704 ارقام و 260)  به ترتیب 7 و 15 درصد کاهش داشتند. به طور کلی با مدیریت مناسب کود و مصرف 10 تن در هکتار زئولیت، با صرفه‌جویی 30 درصد در مصرف آب (2100 مترمکعب در هکتار)، می‌توان عملکرد دانه مناسبی از هر دو رقم زودرس و دیر رس ذرت بدست آورد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه ‏های کلیدی:
  • کلینوپتیلولیت عملکرد دانه کم آبیاری ذرت کود نیتروژن
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