The Study of temperature depression and its association with grain yield in six wheat cultivars under heat stress conditions and salicylic acid application

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 دانشگاه شیراز/دانشکده کشاورزی

2 Shiraz University

3 Persian Gulf University

10.22099/iar.2020.31975.1318

Abstract

In order to evaluate canopy and organs temperature depression (TD) under heat stress conditions and the effects of plant morphology on organs temperature depression and their association with grain yield, two field experiments were conducted using six wheat cultivars (Behrang, Chamran, Kauz, Koohdasht, Karim and Montana) planted on three dates (early, optimum, late) in 2014-2015 and 2015 -2016 cropping seasons in Dashtestan, Bushehr, Iran. In addition, three concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 0.5 and 1 mM) were applied to alleviate the effects of heat stress.  Canopy and organs (flag leaf, peduncle and spike) temperature were measured by a hand-held infra-red thermometer (IRT). Also, some morphological traits in addition to yield components were measured. Results showed that the effects of cultivars and heat conditions were significant for most of the studied traits but salicylic acid application showed no significant effects. Under late sowing date, canopy and organs temperature depression were significantly higher than those at early and optimum sowing dates. No significant differences were found between early and optimum sowing dates for all temperature depressions. Among cultivars, Behrang had higher canopy temperature reduction (CTD), flag leaf temperature depression (FLTD) and peduncle temperature depression (PTD). Spike temperature depression (STD) was higher in Chamran and Kauz cultivars. Among plant organs, peduncle had higher temperature depression followed by flag leaf and spike. Canopy and organs temperature depression had positive correlation with stomatal conductance and grain yield. This research suggests that temperature depression can be used as an important criterion for the selection of stable genotypes under late sowing conditions. This is very helpful to improve wheat productivity under terminal heat stress resulting from late sowing conditions.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

مطالعه تنزل دمایی و ارتباط آن با عملکرد در شش رقم گندم تحت شرایط تنش گرمایی

Authors [Persian]

  • عباس بناری 1
  • محسن عدالت 2
  • حسین غدیری 2
  • سیدعبدالرضا کاظمینی 2
  • محمد مدرسی 3
3 دانشگاه خلیج فارس
Abstract [Persian]

-به منظور ارزیابی تنزل دمای سایه انداز و اندام های گیاهی تحت شرایط تنش گرمایی و اثر مورفولوژی گیاهی بر روی این تنزل و همچنین ارتباط آن با عملکرد دانه، دو آزمایش مزرعه بر روی شش رقم گندم (بهرنگ،کاز، چمران، کوهدشت، کریم و مانتانا) در سه تاریخ کاشت (زود، مناسب و تاخیری) در فصل های کاشت 94-93 و 95-94 در منطقه دشتستان استان بوشهر انجام گرفت. علاوه بر این، به منظور تعدیل اثر تنش گرمایی، سالیسیلیک اسید در غلظت های صفر ،5/0 و 1 میلی مولار مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. دمای سایه انداز و اندام ها (برگ پرچم، پدانکل و سنبله) با استفاده از دماسنج مادون قرمز دستی اندازه گیری گردید. همچنین علاوه بر اجزای عملکرد ،تعدادی از صفات مورفولوژیکی مورد اندازه گیری قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر رقم و شرایط گرمایی (تاریخ کاشت) بر روی اغلب صفات مورد بررسی معنی دار بود. اما اثر کاربرد سالیسیلیک اسید معنی دار نبود. تنزل دمای سایه انداز تحت شرایط کشت تاخیری نسبت به کشت مناسب و زود بیشتر بود. بین شرایط کشت مناسب و زود اختلاف معنی دار وجود نداشت. در بین ارقام، رقم بهرنگ دارای تنزل دمای سایه انداز، تنزل دمایی برگ پرچم و تنزل دمایی پدانکل بیشتری بود. تنزل دمایی سنبله در ارقام چمران و کاز از همه بیشتر بود. در بین اندام های گیاهی، پدانکل تنزل دمایی بیشتری را نشان داد و بعد از آن برگ پرچم و سنبله قرار داشتند. تنزل دمای سایه انداز و اندام ها رابطه مثبت و معنی داری با هدایت روزنه ای و عملکرد دانه داشت .این پژوهش بیان می کند که تنزل دمایی می تواند به عنوان یک معیار مهم جهت انتخاب ارقام پایدار تحت شرایط تنش گرمایی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد و می تواند به بهبود عملکرد و بهره وری گندم تحت شرایط تنش گرمایی پایان فصل کمک کند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • برگ پرچم
  • دمای زیاد
  • پدانکل
  • سنبله
  • عملکرد
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