Effects of wheat straw biochar and irrigation water on hydraulic and chemical properties of a sandy loam soil after faba bean cultivation

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Department of Irrigation, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran

10.22099/iar.2018.28584.1269

Abstract

Nowadays, applying soil amendments is one of the most important ways to cope with water shortages and improve soil physical properties. In this regard, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of irrigation water and wheat straw biochar on physical and chemical properties of a sandy loam soil, after harvesting faba bean. The experiment was performed with 5 biochar levels (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 g kg-1) and 3 irrigation levels (100%, 75% and 50% of crop water requirement) using completely randomized design in three replications. Lowering the irrigation level to 50% did not influence soil physical and chemical properties except for saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), as Ks was significantly declined under 50% irrigation water levels as compared with full irrigation. Soil bulk density and particle density of 32 g kg-1 biochar treatment (B32) was reduced by 47% and 27%, respectively, while soil porosity and Ks increased as compared to no biochar application (B0). Under B32 treatment, the saturated electrical conductivity increased 5.6 times, and the cation exchange capacity and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was increased by 40.3% and 53.6% in comparison with B0, respectively. This made the soil saline (ECe>4 dS/m) but not sodic (SAR-1)1/2). It can be concluded that although, biochar level of 24 g kg-1 did not considerably increase soil water holding capacity compared to B0, it significantly improved the other soil physical and chemical properties, therefore, it can be used as soil amendment.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

اثر بیوچار تولید شده از کاه و کلش گندم و آب آبیاری بر ویژگی‌های هیدرولیکی و شیمیایی در خاک لوم شنی بعد از کشت باقلا

Authors [Persian]

  • فاطمه رزاقی
  • سمانه پورمنصور
  • علیرضا سپاسخواه
گروه علوم و مهندسی آب ، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

امروزه کاربرد اصلاح کننده‌های خاک یکی از مهمترین راهکارهای سازگاری با کمبود آب و افزایش ویژگی‌های هیدرولیکی خاک می‌باشد. لذا، در یک آزمایش گلخانه‌ای، به بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف آب آبیاری و بیوچار بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک لوم شنی بعد از برداشت باقلا پرداخته شد. این آزمایش با پنج سطح بیوچار (صفر، 8، 16، 24 و 32 گرم بر کیلوگرم) و سه سطح آبیاری (100درصد، 75 درصد و 50 درصد نیاز آبی) در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. کاهش در میزان آبیاری تا 50% تاثیری بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک نداشت، بجز در مقدار Ks که تحت تیمار آب آبیاری 50% به صورت معنی‌داری نسبت به آبیاری کامل کاهش یافت. در تیمار 32 گرم بر کیلوگرم بیوچار (B32) نسبت به تیمار بدون بیوچار (B0)، مقدار وزن مخصوص ظاهری و حقیقی به ترتیب 47 و 27 درصد کاهش یافت، در‌حالی‌که سبب افزایش تخلخل خاک و Ks خاک گردید. در تیمار B32، مقدار هدایت الکتریکی اشباع 6/5 برابر و مقدار ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی و نسبت جذبی سدیم (SAR) به ترتیب 3/40 و 6/53 درصد در مقایسه با B0 افزایش یافت، که این مساله سبب شور شدن (ECe>4 dS/m) و غیر سدیمی شدن (SAR-1)1/2) خاک گردید. می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که هرچند سطح بیوچار 24 گرم بر کیلوگرم افزایش قابل ملاحظه‌ای در میزان ظرفیت نگهداری آب خاک در مقایسه با B0 نداشت، اما سبب بهبود معنی‌دار ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک گردید و در نتیجه می‌توان از این سطح بیوچار به عنوان اصلاح کننده خاک استفاده نمود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی
  • ظرفیت نگهداری آب
  • نسبت جذبی سدیم
  • هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع
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