Comparative investigation of physico-chemical and sensory properties of glazed and non-glazed frozen rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) thawed with different methods by principal component analysis

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Natural Resources and Environment Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Fasa University, Fasa, I. R. Iran

3 University of Gastronomic Sciences, Bra, Italy



Quality of glazed (G) and non-glazed air-blast frozen rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated after applying different modern (M: microwave oven; U: ultrasonic; HVEFT: high voltage electrical field; O: ohmic heating) and conventional (S: steam cooking; W: water; R: refrigeration) thawing methods. Glazed frozen samples thawed by modern and conventional methods showed an increase in protein and pH contents (except for M/MG). The glazing process negatively affected the TVB-N (total volatile basic nitrogen) and % FFA (free fatty acid) levels and these compound increased after glazing in all thawed samples except for SG and S from  conventional and M, MG, U and UG from modern thawing methods, respectively. The TOTOX value of HVEF, HVEFG and OG was not significantly changed after thawing process compared with the fresh fish sample. Glazing could reduce the drip loss and increase the WHC (water holding capacity) in different thawing methods except for MG. MG and HVEFG/RG/WG had the lowest and highest hardness, respectively. The L* values of HVEF/HVEFG and U were higher than those of fresh and other thawing methods.


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی مقایسه‌ای خواص فیزیکوشیمیایی و حسی دیفراست با روش‌های مختلف در قزل‌آلای رنگین کمان منجمد با و بدون لعاب، تحت روش آنالیز خوشه‌ای چند متغیره

Authors [Persian]

  • محمود ناصری 1
  • الهه عابدی 2
  • سارا وفا 1
  • لئویسا توری 3
1 بخش مهندسی منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز
2 بخش مهندسی علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فسا
3 دانشگاه علوم گوارش، برا، ایتالیا
Abstract [Persian]

کیفیت قزل آلای رنگین کمان (Oncorhynchus mykiss) منجمد شده با لعاب و بدون آن، پس از خروج از انجماد به روش های متداول (بخاردهی، آب و یخچالی) و نوین (مایکرویو، میدان الکتریکی با ولتاژ بالا و روش اهمیک) مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. نمونه های منجمد شده با لعاب، پس از خروج از انجماد به روش متداول و نوین (به جز نمونه M و MG) افزایشی را در میزان pH و پروتئین نشان دادند. فرایند لعاب دهی به صورت منفی بر میزان TVNB (میزان کلی نیتروژن باز فرار) و %FFA (میزان اسید چرب آزاد) اثر گذاشت و میزان این ترکیبات بعد از لعاب دهی در تمامی نمونه ها بعد از خروج از انجماد به استثنای SG (بخاردهی با لعاب) و S (بخاردهی) در روش متداول و M، MG، U و UG از روش مدرن افزایش یافت. میزان TOTOX  در نمونه های HVEF HVEFG  و OG پس از خروج از انجماد  نسبت به نمونه ماهی طبیعی تغییر معناداری نداشت. لعاب دهی، میزان از دست دادن آب را کاهش و میزان ظرفیت نگهداری آب را در تمام نمونه های خروج از انجماد به استثنای MG افزایش داد. نمونه های MG  و  HVEFG/RG/WG به ترتیب دارای بیشترین و کمترین میزان سفتی بافت بودند. میزان L* در HVEF/HVEFG  و  U نسبت به نمونه ماهی تیمار نشده و دیگر تیمارها بزرگتر بود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • میدان الکتریکی با ولتاژ بالا
  • لعاب دهی
  • حرارت دهی اهمیک
  • ماهی قزل آلا
  • اولتراسونیکه کردن
Abedi, E., Sahari, M. A., Barzegar, M., & Azizi, M. H. (2015). Optimisation of soya bean oil bleaching by ultrasonic processing and investigate the physico-chemical properties of bleached soya bean oil. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 50, 857–863.
Abedi, E., Sahari, M. A., Barzegar, M., & Azizi, M. H. (2016). Designing of high voltage electric field for soybean and sunflower oil bleaching. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 36, 173–180.
Abedi, E., Naseri, M., Ghanbarian, G. A., & Vazirzadeh, A. (2016). Coverage of polyethylene film with essential oils of hyme (Thymus daenensis Celak) and savory (Saturejabachtiarica Bunge)    for lipid oxidation control in   rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during short-term storage in the refrigerator. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 40(3), 483-491.
Akter, T., Begum, R., Ahmed, A. T. A., Khaleque, M. A., & Begum, M. (2012). Comparative studies on some undesirable quality changes during freezing preservation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) and bele fish (Glossogobius giuris, Linnaeus, 1766) at laboratory condition. Trends Life Science, 1, 20–24.
Ali, S., Zhang, W., Rajput, N., Khan, M. A., Li, C. B., & Zhou, G. H. (2015). Effect of multiple freeze–thaw cycles on the quality of chicken breast meat. Food Chemistry, 173, 808–814.
Alizadeh, E., Chapleau, N., de Lamballerie, M., & Le-Bail, A. (2007). Effect of different freezing processes on the microstructure of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets.
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 8(4),493-499.
Archer, M., Edmonds, M.. & George, M. (2008). Seafood thawing. Report for Seafish Research and Development Department SR598, Edinburgh, UK.
Arannilewa, S. T., Salawu, S. O., Sorungbe, A. A., & Ola-Salawu, B. B. (2005). Effect of frozen period on the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of frozen tilapia fish (Sarotherodun galiaenus). African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(8), 852-855.
Arzeni, C., Martínez, K., Zema, P., Arias, A., Pérez, O. E., & Pilosof, A. M. R. (2012). Comparative study of high intensity ultrasound effects on food proteins functionality. Journal of Food Engineering, 108, 463-472.
Azadian, M., Moosavi-Nasab, M., & Abedi, E. (2012). Comparison of functional properties and SDS-PAGE patterns between fish protein isolate and surimi produced from silver carp. European Food Research and Technology, 235(1), 83-90.
Boonchoo, N., Tangduangdee, C., & Asavasanti, S. (2015). Effects of ohmic heating on thawing time, energy consumption and water holding capacity (WHC) of frozen chicken breast. Conference paper presented at the 27th Annual Meeting of the Thai Society for Biotechnology and International Conference. November 17-20, Bangkok, Thailand.
Boonsumrej, S., Chaiwanichsiri, S., Tantratian, S., Suzuki, T., & Takai, R. (2007). Effects of freezing and thawing on the quality changes of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) frozen by air-blast and cryogenic freezing. Journal of Food Engineering, 80(1), 292-299.
Bostock, J., Lane, A., Hough, C., & Yamamoto, K. (2016). An assessment of the economic contribution of EU aquaculture production and the influence of policies for its sustainable development. Aquaculture International, 24(3), 699-733.
Boziaris, I. S. (2014). Seafood processing: Technology, quality and safety. Ltd., Volos, Greece: John Wiley & Sons.
Bozkurt, H., & İçier, F. (2012). Ohmic thawing of frozen beef cuts. Journal of Food Process Engineering 35(1), 16-36.

Chevalier, D., Sequeira-Munoz, A., Le Bail, A., Simpson, B. K., & Ghoul, M. ( 2000). Effect of freezing conditions and storage on ice crystal and drip volume in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): Evaluation  of pressure  shift freezing vs. air-blast freezing. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 1(3), 19-201.

Chávez-Mendoza, C., García-Macías, J. A., Alarcón-Rojo, A. D., Ortega-Gutiérrez, J. Á., Holguín-Licón, C., & Corral-Flores, G. (2014). Comparison of fatty acid content of fresh and frozen fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Walbaum. BrazilianArchives of Biology and Technology, 57(1), 103-109.
Christensen, L. M. (2012). Evaluation of textural properties of cooked beef batters. Master’s thesis. California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA.
Cozzolino, D., Murray, I., Chree, A., & Scaife, J. R. (2005). Multivariate determination of free fatty acids and moisture in fish oils by partial least-squares regression and near-infrared spectroscopy. LWT Food Science and Technology, 38(8), 821-828.

Davies, J. R., Ledward, D. A., Bardsley, R. G., & Poulter, R. G. (1994). Species dependence of fish myosin stability to heat and frozen storage. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 29(3), 287-301.

Deepika, D., Vegneshwaran, V. R., Julia, P., Sukhinder, K. C., Sheila, T., Heather, M., & Wade, M. (2014). Investigation on oil extraction methods and its influence on omega-3 content from cultured salmon. Journal of Food Processing and Technology, 5(12), 1-13.
Ersoy, B., Aksan, E., & Özeren, A. (2008). The effect of thawing methods on the quality of eels (Anguilla anguilla). Food Chemistry, 111(2), 377-380.
Genç, İ.Y., Esteves, E., Aníbal, J., & Diler, A. (2015). Effects of different thawing methods on the quality of meagre fillets. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 62(2), 153-159.
Goodenough, T. I., Goodenough, P. W., & Goodenough, S. M. (2007). The efficiency of corona wind drying and its application to the food industry. Journal of Food Engineering, 80(4), 1233-1238.

Huang, L., Chen, Y., & Morrissey, M. T. (1997). Coagulation of fish proteins from frozen fish mince wash water by ohmic heating. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 20, 285-300.

Kalbassi, M. R., Abdollahzadeh, E., & Salari-Joo, H. (2013). A review on aquaculture development in Iran. Ecopersia, 1(2), 159-178.
Kissam, A. D., Nelson, R. W., Ngao, J., & Hunter, P. (1982). Water-thawing of fish using low frequency acoustics. Journal of Food Science 47(1), 71-75.
Leygonie, C., Britz, T. J., & Hoffman, L. C. (2012). Impact of freezing and thawing on the quality of meat: Review. Meat Science, 91(2), 93-98.
Miles, C. A., Morley, M. J., & Rendell, M. (1999). High power ultrasonic thawing of frozen foods. Journal of Food Engineering, 39(2), 151-159.
Mol, S., Özden, Ö., Erkan, N., & Baygar, T. (2004). Determination of the quality parameters of imported mackerel under different thawing conditions. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 28(6), 1071-1077.
Mørkøre, T., & Lilleholt, R. (2007). Impact of freezing temperature on quality of farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Journal of Texture Studies, 38(4), 457-472.
Mousakhani-Ganjeh, A., Hamdami, N., & Soltanizadeh, N. (2015). Impact of high voltage electric field thawing on the quality of frozen tuna fish (Thunnus albacares). Journal of Food Engineering, 156, 39-44.
Rahbari, M., Hamdami, N., Mirzaei, H., Jafari, S. M., Kashaninejad, M., & Khomeiri, M. (2018). Effects of high voltage electric field thawing on the characteristics of chicken breast protein. Journal of Food Engineering, 216, 98-106.

Regier, M., Knoerzer, K., & Schubert, H. (2016). The microwave processing of foods (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Woodhead Publishing.

O'sullivan, J., Murray, B., Flynn, C., & Norton, I. (2016). The effect of ultrasound treatment on the structural, physical and emulsifying properties of animal and vegetable proteins.  Food Hydrocolloids, 53, 141-154.‏
Rodríguez, A., Cruz, J. M., Paseiro-Losada, P., & Aubourg, S. P. (2012). Effect of a polyphenol–vacuum packaging on lipid deterioration during an 18-month frozen storage of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(6), 2602-2611.
Seyhun, N., Ramaswamy, H. S., Zhu, S., Sumnu, G., & Sahin, S. (2013). Ohmic tempering of frozen potato puree. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(11), 3200-3205.
Soares, N. M. F., Oliveira, M. S. G., & Vicente, A. A. (2015). Effects of glazing and chitosan- based coating application on frozen salmon preservation during six-month storage in ndustrial freezing chambers. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 61(2), 524-531.
Tiwari, K. B. (2015). Ultrasound: A clean, green extraction technology. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 71, 100-109.
Tokur, B., Çakh, Ş., & Polat, A. (2006). The quality changes of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., 1792) with a vegetable topping during frozen storage (-18°C). E.Ü. Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 23(3–4), 345-350.
Varghese, K. S., Pandey, M.C., Radhakrishna, K., & Bawa, A. S. (2014). Technology, applications and modelling of ohmic heating: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(10), 2304-2317.
Woyewoda, A. D., Shaw, S. J., Ke, P. J., & Burns, B. G. (1986). Recommended laboratory methods for assessment of fish quality. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No 1448. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Xia, X., Kong, B., Liu, J., Diao, X., & Liu, Q. (2012). Influence of different thawing methods on physicochemical changes and protein oxidation of porcine longissimus muscle. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 46(1), 280–286.
Zhu, S., Ramaswamy, H. S., & Simpson, B. K. (2004). Effect of high-pressure versus conventional thawing on color, drip loss and texture of Atlantic salmon frozen by different methods. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 37(3),291-299.
Zolfaghari, M., Shabanpour, B., & Falahzadeh, S. (2011). Study of trend of chemical and microbial changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to determine the optimum shelf-life during storage in refrigerator temperature (4°C). Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 64(2), 107–119.