Effects of water stress on growth parameters and forage quality of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.)

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, I. R. Iran.

2 2Research Division of Natural Resources, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Isfahan, I. R. Iran



Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L. is a herbaceous perennial plant that could be drought tolerant once established after the first year. To evaluate the effects of water stress on growth parametersand forage quality of this plant, a field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replications in Isfahan, Iran during 2013-2015. Treatments were irrigation at 20 % (non-stress), 50 % (moderate stress) and 80 % (severe stress) depletion of the soil available water. Plant fresh weight (FW), plant dry weight (DW) and some forage quality characteristics such as crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), dry matter digestibility (DMD), total tannins (TT) and ash content were determined at the heading stage. Results indicated that growth and forage quality were significantly affected by water stress. The highest rates of FW, DW, NDF, ADF, CF and ash contents were recorded at non-stress conditions which were decreased over increasing stress severity by 40.67, 51.71, 6.54, 18.23, 8.83 and 21.81 %, respectively, while the highest rates of CP, DMD, WSC, and TT contents were observed at the severe water stress conditions. Generally, although water stress decreased forage yield, it had a positive role in qualitative characteristics of Cynara forage due to the increase in CP, DMD and WSC along with the decrease in NDF, ADF and ash content.


Article Title [Persian]

تأثیر تنش رطوبتی بر پارامترهای رشد و کیفیت علوفه کنگرفرنگی (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.)

Authors [Persian]

  • مرضیه اله دادی 1
  • بابک بحرینی نژاد 2
1 گروه اکوفیزیولوژی گیاهی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ج. ا. ایران
2 استادیار بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی،
Abstract [Persian]

کنگرفرنگی گیاهی علفی و چند ساله است که می‏تواند بعد از استقرار در سال اول رویش، به خشکی متحمل باشد. برای ارزیابی تأثیر تنش کمبود آب بر رشد و کیفیت علوفه این گیاه، آزمایشی با استفاده از طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در اصفهان طی سال­های 93-1391 انجام شد. تیمارهای آبیاری شامل 20، 50 و 80 درصد تخلیه رطوبت قابل استفاده در خاک (به ترتیب بدون تنش، تنش متوسط و شدید) بودند. وزن‏تر و خشک گیاه و برخی از خصوصیات کیفی علوفه شامل پروتئین و چربی خام، کربوهیدرات­های محلول در آب، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی و اسیدی، قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، تانن و میزان خاکستر تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد که پارامترهای رشدی و کیفیت علوفه تحت تأثیر تنش کمبود آب قرار گرفت. حداکثر وزن تر و خشک گیاه، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی و اسیدی، چربی خام و خاکستر در تیمار بدون تنش ثبت شدند که با افزایش شدت تنش به‏ترتیب 67/40، 71/51، 54/6، 23/18، 83/8 و 81/21 درصد کاهش یافتند، در حالی‏که بیشترین میزان پروتئین خام، قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، کربوهیدرات­های محلول در آب و محتوای تانن در تنش شدید مشاهده شدند. به طور کلی، اگرچه تنش رطوبتی باعث کاهش عملکرد علوفه شد لیکن از طریق افزایش میزان پروتئین خام، قابلیت هضم ماده خشک و کربوهیدرات­های محلول در آب و کاهش میزان الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی و اسیدی و خاکستر نقش مثبتی بر خصوصیات کیفی علوفه کنگرفرنگی داشت.

Keywords [Persian]

  • کنگر فرنگی
  • پروتئین خام
  • قابلیت هضم ماده خشک
  • رژیم‌های آبیاری
  • تانن کل
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