Validation of the utilization of a specific spray machine to apply general herbicide (Glyphosate) for controlling weeds in chickpea farms in dry land areas of Iran

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Maragheh I. R. Iran

10.22099/iar.2020.34608.1360

Abstract

Weeds are a serious problem of chickpea cultivation in rain-fed areas of Iran and economic feasibility of crop production is mostly challenged by the method of control. In this study, two types of weed control strategies which are common in the country, including hand removing and hand removing + mechanical application, were compared with application of general herbicide (Glyphosite) using a specific spray machine under a minimum tillage system. The trial was carried out in the farms of five ha each, along with a two-ha weedy control at Dry land Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), Maragheh, Iran during cropping season 2018-2019. Chickpea cultivar “Adel” was sown under no - tillage system in planting arrangements of 17.5 × 52.5 cm using a direct drill machine followed by routine operations such as pesticide or fertilizer applications during the growth season. Three patches of 10 m2 of each treatment were randomly chosen as blocks and measurements were conducted on four randomly chosen 1 m2 samples as replications inside them. Data arranged as completely randomized blocks design were analyzed. Results showed that although higher yield indices belonged to hand removing or hand removing + mechanical applications, a powerful economic feasibility could be obtained by application of Glyphosate using the spray machine. It may be inferred from this study that in the absence or under situations where application of selective herbicides is non-economic, farmers can apply relatively in-expensive general herbicides to control weeds using this machine and gain acceptable income.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

اعتبار‌سنجی استفاده از ماشین پاششی ویژه برای کاربرد علف کش عمومی (گلایفوسیت) به منظور کنترل علف‌های هرز مزارع نخود در مناطق دیم ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • غلامرضا قهرمانیان
  • حمیدرضا پور‌‌علی‌بابا
  • محسن مهدیه
مؤسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور؛ سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مراغه ، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

علف‌‌های‌ هرز یکی از مشکل‌های اصلی کشت و کار نخود در دیمزارهای ایران بوده و صرفه اقتصادی تولید تا حد زیادی وابسته به نحوه ی کنترل آنهاست. در این پژوهش، روش‌های عمده‌ی مبارزه با علف‌های‌هرز که در کشور رواج دارد؛ شامل وجین دستی و کنترل مکانیکی + وجین دستی، با کاربرد یک علف کش  عمومی ( گلایفوسیت)  با استفاده از یک ماشین پاششی مخصوص در یک سیستم بدون خاک‌ورزی مقایسه گردید. آزمایش در مزارع آزمایشی پنج هکتاری همراه با یک مزرعه دو هکتاری شاهد بدون مبارزه با علف‌هرز در طی سال زراعی 97-1396 در اراضی مؤسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور ( مراغه) انجام گرفت. نخود رقم عادل در یک آرایش کشت 5/17 × 5/52  سانتی‌متری با استفاده از یک دستگاه  کارنده‌ی مستقیم  کشت گردید و عملیات رایج زراعی مانند مبارزه با آفات و کود‌دهی در طی فصل رشد انجام شد. سه تکه زمین 10 متر‌مربعی در داخل هر تیمار بصورت کاملاً تصادفی انتخاب شده و به عنوان بلوک فرض شدند و کلیه اندازه‌گیریها در داخل چهار نمونه‌ی یک متر‌مربعی که کاملاً تصادفی و به عنوان تکرار انتخاب شده بودند، در داخل این تکه‌های ده متر‌مربعی انجام گرفت و سپس داده‌ها در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی تجزیه شدند. نتایج نشان دادند که اگرچه وجین دستی و کنترل مکانیکی + وجین دستی دارای بالاترین شاخص های عملکرد هستند، اما بیشترین توجیه اقتصادیِ کنترل متعلق به کاربرد علف‌کش عمومی  گلایفوسیت  با استفاده از ماشین پاششی ویژه بود. این نشان داد که تحت شرایطی که کاربرد علف‌کش های انتخابی به دلیل گرانی و کمبود در بازار غیر اقتصادی است، کشاورزان نخود کار می‌توانند با استفاده از این دستگاه، علف‌کش‌های عمومی نسبتاً ارزان را برای کنترل علف‌های‌هرز به‌کار برده و درآمد قابل قبولی را بدست بیاورند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • نخود
  • علف‌کش عمومی
  • سمپاش اختصاصی
  • علف هرز
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