The effects of pine wood vinegar on the germination, growth and photosynthetic characteristics of cucumber

Document Type: Research Paper


Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan I. R. Iran



Wood vinegar is a substance, derived from cooling black carbon fire, which could be used instead of chemical materials in the agriculture industry as an organic compound. In order to study the effectiveness of pine wood vinegar on physiological and photosynthesis traits of cucumber, two experiments were conducted based on a completely randomized design with six treatments including 0, 1250, 2000, 2500, 3333 and 5000 mgL-1 of wood vinegar with four replications. The first experiment was designed in the laboratory in order to study the effect of pine wood vinegar priming on cucumber seeds and the second one was conducted in a greenhouse condition to investigate the effect of wood vinegar on seedlings of cucumber in Isfahan University of Technology. The highest flower number and yield in cucumber was observed in 2500 mgL-1 pine wood vinegar trearment. Photosynthesis in cucumber increased in 2000 mgL-1 pine wood vinegar trearment. The lowest transpiration in cucumber was 1.54 mmolm–2s–1 in 2000 mgL-1 pine wood vinegar treatment. 1250 mgL-1 wood vinegar treatment increased germination percentage and speeded up the germination process compare to control. The highest root length, volume and surface were observed at 1250 mgL-1 treatment. The concentration of nitrogen (5.5% DW) in the treatment of 3333 mgL-1 Pine wood vinegar, the potassium concentration in the treatment of 5000 mgL-1 and calcium and iron concentrattions in the treatment of 1250 mgL-1 were at the highest levels compared to other treatments. The highest amount of chlorophyll and photosynthesis was observed at 2000 mgL-1 treatment. The wood vinegar with 2500 mgL-1 pine wood vinegar concentration showed the highest flower and fruit yield in cucumber, but the best quality of fruit was produced by 2000 mgL-1 treatment.


Article Title [Persian]

تاثیرات سرکه چوب کاج بر جوانه‌زنی، رشد و ویژگی‌های فتوسنتزی خیار

Authors [Persian]

  • بهزاد عبداللهی پور
  • مریم حقیقی
گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان ، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

سرکه چوب یک ماده مشتق شده از سوختن کربن سیاه است که می­تواند جایگزین مواد شیمیایی در صنعت کشاورزی به­عنوان یک ترکیب آلی گردد. به­منظور مطالعه اثر کارآیی سرکه چوب کاج بر ویژگی­های فیزیولوژیکی و فتوسنتزی خیار دو آزمایش براساس طرح کاملا تصادفی با شش تیمار شامل 1250، 2000، 2500، 3333 و 5000 میلی­گرم در لیتر سرکه چوب با چهار تکرار انجام شد. اولین آزمایش در آزمایشگاه به­منظور بررسی تاثیرات اولیه سرکه چوب بر روی بذر خیار (Cucumis sativus var. Super daminos) انجام شد و آزمایش دوم اثر سرکه چوب بر رشد گیاه خیار در گلخانه­های تحقیقاتی دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان انجام شد. بیشترین تعداد گل و عملکرد در خیار در تیمار 2500 میلی­گرم در لیتر سرکه چوب مشاهده شد. فتوسنتز در خیار در تیمار 2000 میلی­گرم در لیتر افزایش یافت. کمترین میزان تعرق  (54/1 میلی­مول برمترمربع بر ثانیه) در خیار در تیمار 2000 میلی گرم در لیتر سرکه چوب بدست امد. سرکه چوب 1250 میلی‌گرم در لیتر باعث افزایش درصد جوانه­زنی و سرعت جوانه زنی آن در مقایسه با شاهد شد.  بیشترین طول ریشه، حجم و سطح در تیمار 1250 میلی­گرم بر لیتر مشاهده شد. غلظت نیتروژن (5/5 درصد وزن خشک) در تیمار 3333 میلی­گرم در لیتر و غلظت پتاسیم در غلظت 5000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر، کلسیم و آهن در غلظت 1250 میلی­گرم در لیتر در بالاترین سطح در مقایسه با سایر تیمارها بود. بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل و فتوسنتز در تیمار 2000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر مشاهده شد. تیمار 2500 میلی­گرم در لیتر در خیار بیشترین عملکرد گل و میوه را نشان داد، اما بهترین و بالاترین کیفیت میوه با 2000 میلی­گرم در لیتر حاصل شد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • خیار
  • گلدهی
  • میوه
  • غلظت عناصر
  • عملکرد
Amen-Chen, C., Pakdel, H., Roy, C. (2001). Production of monomeric phenols by thermochemical conversion of biomass: A review. Bioresource Technology, 79, 277-299.
Baxter, B., Granger, J., & Van Staden J. (1995). Plant-derived smoke and seed germination: Is all smoke good smoke?
That is the burning question. South African Journal of Botany, 61, 275-277.
Brown, N., Van Staden, J., Daws, M., & Johnson, T. (2003). Patterns in the seed germination response to smoke in plants from the Cape Floristic region. South African Journal of Botany, 69, 514-525.
Burnette, R. (2013). An introduction to wood vinegar. ECHO Asia Regional Office, Durrance Road, North Fort Myers, USA. Retrieved from: http://c.ymcdn. com/sites/www.echocommunity. org.
Commander, L., Merritt, D., Rokich, D., Flematti, G., & Dixon, K. (2008). Seed germination of Solanum spp. (Solanaceae) for use in rehabilitation and commercial industries. Australian Journal of Botany, 56, 333-341.
Dixon, K. W., Roche, S., & Pate, J. S. (1995). The primitive effect of smoke derived from burnt native vegetation on seed germination of Western Australian plants. Oecologia, 101, 185-192.
Etemadi, N., Haghighi, M., Nikbakht, A., & Zamani, N. (2010). Method to promote germination of Kelussia
odaratissima an Iranian endemic medicinal plants. Herba polonica, 56(2), 21-28.
Flematti, G.R., Ghisalberti, E.L., Dixon, K.W., & Trengove, R.D. (2004). A compound from smoke that promotes seed germination. Science, 305, 977-977.
Haghighi, M., Heidarian, S., Teixeira, J., & da Silva, A. (2012). The effect of titanium amendment in N-
withholding nutrient solution on physiological and photosynthesis attributes and micro-nutrient uptake of tomato. Biological Trace Element Research, 150, 381-390.
Imanparast, L., Hassanpanah, D., & Gadimov, A. (2009). Evaluation of wood vinegar effect on wheat seeds for fungus disease control under in vitro condition. Alabama Newspaper Advertising Service, 7, 173-175.
Jothityangkoon, D., Koolachart, R., Wanapat, S., Wongkaew, S., Jogloy, S. (2008). Using wood vinegar in enhancing peanut yield and in controlling the contamination of aflatoxin producing fungus. International Crop Science, 4, 253-253.
Kim, D. H., Seo, H. E., Lee, S., Lee, K. (2008). Effects of wood vinegar mixted with insecticides on the mortalities of Nilaparvata lugens and Laodelphax striatellus (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Animal Cells and Systems, 12(1), 47-52.
Koç, İ. (2017). A research on determination of some effects of wood vinegar and pesticides on wheat agroecosystems. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Philosophy, Yüzüncü Yıl University, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, Van).
Koleva, I. I., Van Beek, T. A., Linssen, J. P. H., de Groot, A., & Evstatieva, L. N. (2002). Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: A comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochemical Analysis, 13, 8-17.
Loo, A.Y., Jain, K., Darah, I. (2007). Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of the pyroligneous acid from a mangrove plant, Rhizophora apiculata. Food Chemistry, 104, 300-307.
Mu, J., Uehara, T., & Furuno, T. (2003). Effect of bamboo vinegar on regulation of germination and radicle growth of seed plants. Wood Science and Technology, 49, 262-270.
Mu, J., Uehara, T., & Furuno, T. (2004). Effect of bamboo vinegar on regulation of germination and radicle growth of seed plants II: Composition of moso bamboo vinegar at different collection temperature and its effects. Wood Science and Technology, 50, 470-476.
Mungkunkamchao, T., Kesmala, T., Pimratch, S., Toomsan, B., & Jothityangkoon, D. (2013). Wood vinegar and fermented bioextracts: Natural products to enhance growth and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Horticultural Science, 154, 66-72.
Nurhayati, T., Roliadi, H., & Bermawie, N. (2005). Production of mangium (Acacia mangium) Wood vinegar and its utilization. Journal Forest Research, 2, 13-25.
Tiilikkala, K., Fagernäs, L., & Tiilikkala, J. (2010). History and use of wood pyrolysis liquids as biocide and plant protection product.