Carbon sequestration in sugarcane plant and soil with different cultivation systems

Document Type: Full Article

Authors

1 Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Emeritus Professor at Shiraz University and Adjunct Professor at School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia

3 Manager of Agronomy Department in Iranian Sugarcane Research and Training Institute

10.22099/iar.2019.30598.1295

Abstract

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a multi-purpose crop, mainly planted in South-western (SW) parts of Iran. However, the capability of sugarcane farms to sequestrate carbon into soil and plant is not well documented. In this research, the carbon sequestration in sugarcane plant and soil in a ratooning traditional cultivation system at the Amirkabir Sugarcane Agro-Industry Complex in Khuzestan Province was evaluated during 2013-2014. The soil samples were randomly collected at 0-30 cm top layer and soil organic carbon (SOC) was analysed in laboratory. Simultaneously, both aboveground and underground parts of sugarcane plants were sampled and the carbon content of each part was measured separately. The carbon stored in the aboveground parts (leaves and shoots) was significantly (p≤0.01) higher (1292 kg ha-1) than that (655 kg ha-1) of underground organs (roots). The total SOC (1987.3 kg ha-1) was not considerably higher than the sequestrated carbon (1947 kg ha-1) in plant parts. Furthermore, a positive and significant correlation was found between SOC and soil clay content. Overall, 3934.5 kg ha-1 sequestrated carbon equal to 14439.6 kg ha-1 atmospheric CO2 was estimated to be in sugarcane farms. In conclusion, the results showed that the Ratoon I has the highest potential of carbon sequestration than other treatments. Current sugarcane farming practices in Khuzestan could act as an important pool for carbon sequestration and consequently enhancing the mitigation of climate change impacts. It seems that changing the current sugarcane traditional harvesting system which is predominantly based on burning the residues towards the suitable management could enhance the capability of carbon sequestration even more.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

ترسیب کربن در گیاه و خاک مزارع نیشکر در سیستم‌های مختلف کشت

Authors [Persian]

  • علیرضا عزیزی 1
  • غلامعباس قنبریان 1
  • علیمراد حسنلی 2
  • محمود شمیلی 3
1 بخش مهندسی منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز
2 بخش مهندسی منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز دانشکده محیط زیست، دانشگاه استرالیای جنوبی
3 مدیر مرکز تحقیقات نیشکر ، شرکت کشت و صنعت نیشکراهواز
Abstract [Persian]

نیشکر گیاهی چند منظوره است که عمدتاً در قسمت­های جنوب غربی ایران کشت می­شود. تاکنون در مورد قابلیت ترسیب کربن مزارع نیشکر ایران پژوهش­های کافی صورت نگرفته است. در این پژوهش، ترسیب کربن در اندام­های گیاه و خاک مزارع تحت کشت نیشکر در خوزستان که به روش سنتیراتونینگ کشت و برداشت می­شوند مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. به این منظور، نمونه­های خاک از لایه سطحی 30-0 سانتی­متری به صورت تصادفی برداشت و میزان کربن آلی، اسیدیته، هدایت الکتریکی، بافت و وزن ویژه ظاهری آن­ها تعیین شد. به صورت همزمان از اندام­های هوایی (برگ و ساقه) و زیر زمینی (ریشه) گیاه نیشکر نمونه­گیری صورت گرفت و میزان کربن هر بخش به صورت  جداگانه تعیین شدند. نتایج نشان داد که کربن ذخیره شده در بخش بالای سطح خاک (برگ و ساقهبه میزان kg ha-11292) به صورت معنی داری (p≤0.05) بیشتر از  اندام­های زیرزمینی (ریشه­ به میزان kg ha-1 655) می­باشد. کل کربن ترسیب شده در خاک (به میزان kg ha-1 3/1987) با میزان کربن ترسیب شده در کل اندام­های گیاهی (به میزان kg ha-11947) اختلاف معنی­داری نداشت. علاوه بر این، همبستگی مثبت و معنی­داری بین کربن آلی و میزان رس خاک مشاهده شد. برآوردها نشان داد که مقدار کربن ترسیب شده در گیاه و خاک مزارع نیشکر خوزستان kg ha-1 5/3934 است که معادل kg ha-1 6/14439دی اکسید کربن جذب شده از اتمسفر است. به طور کلی، نتایج نشان داد در سیستم کشت راتونینگ، کل کربن ترسیب شده در مرحله راتون 1 بیشترین میزان را دارد. در نتیجه کشت نیشکر در جنوب غرب ایران می تواند به عنوان  حوضچه­ای مهم برای ذخیره کربن عمل کرده و در نتیجه موجب کاهش اثرات تغییرات اقلیمی گردد. به نظر می­رسد که ایجاد تغییر در سامانه فعلی برداشت محصول نیشکر که بر مبنای سوزانیدن بقایای گیاهی در مزرعه است و حرکت به سوی مدیریت پایدار با هدف حفظ بقایای گیاهی، بتواند توانایی ترسیب کربن این مزارع را افزایش دهد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • تغییر اقلیم
  • استان خوزستان
  • سامانه کشت راتونینیگ
  • کربن آلی خاک

Anaya, C.A., & Huber-Sannwald, E. (2015). Long-term soil organic carbon and nitrogen dynamics after conversion of tropical forest to traditional sugarcane agriculture in East Mexico. Soil and Tillage Research, 147:20–29.

Bikila, N.G., Tessema, Z.K., Abule, E.G. (2016). Carbon sequestration potentials of semi-arid rangelands under traditional management practices in Borana, Southern Ethiopia. Agriculture Ecosystemand and Environment, 223 (1): 108–114.

Bouyoucos, G. J. (1962). Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal, 54(5), 464-465.

Buyanovsky, G.A., & Wagner, G.H. (1998). Carbon cycling in cultivated land and its global significance. Global Change Biology. 4 (2),131-141.

Cancado, J.E., Saldiva, P.H.,. Pereira, L.A., Lara, L.B., Artaxo, P., Martinelli, L.A., Arbex, M.A., Zanobetti, A., & Braga. A.L.F. (2006). The impact of sugar cane-burning emissions on the respiratory system of children and the elderly. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114 (1), 725-729.

 Carter, M.R. (2008). Soil sampling and methods of analysis. CRC Press.

Cerri, C.C., Galdos, M.V., Maia, S.M.F., Bernoux, M., Feigl, B.J., Powlson, D., & Cerri, C.E.P. (2011). Effect of sugarcane harvesting systems on soil carbon stocks in Brazil: an examination of existing data. European Journal of Soil Science, 62 (1), 23-28.

Chandra, R., Rana, N. S., Kumar, S., & Panwar, G. S. (2008). Effects of sugarcane residue and green manure practices in sugarcane-ratoon-wheat sequence on productivity, soil fertility and soil biological properties. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 54(6), 651-664.

D'Alessandro, D. M., Smit, B., & Long, J. R. (2010). Carbon dioxide capture: prospects for new materials. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 49 (35), 6058-6082.

Davis, S. J., Caldeira, K., & Matthews, H. D. (2010). Future CO2 emissions and climate change from existing energy infrastructure. Science, 329 (5997), 1330-1333.

De Figueiredo, E. B., Panosso, A. R., Romão, R., & La Scala, N. (2010). Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil. Carbon Balance and Management, 5 (1), 3.

Falloon, P., P. Smith, R. Betts, C.D. Jones, J. Smith, D. Hemming, & A. Challinor. (2009). Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas fluxes from cropland soils–climate opportunities and threats. In Singh S. N.(ed.) Climate change and crops (pp.81-111). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.

FAOSTAT (2016).Availabale from: http:// faostat3. fao.org/ download/Q/QC/E/.

Freibauer, A., Rounsevell, M. D., Smith, P., & Verhagen, J. (2004). Carbon sequestration in the agricultural soils of Europe. Geoderma, 122 (1), 1-23.

Galdos, M. V., Cerri, C. C., & Cerri, C. E. P. (2009). Soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane in Brazil. Geoderma, 153 (3-4), 347-352.

Gao, Y. H., Luo, P., Wu, N., Chen, H., & Wang, G. X. (2007). Grazing intensity impacts on carbon sequestration in an alpine meadow on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 3 (6), 642-647.

Ghanbarian, G., Hassanli, A., & Rajabi, V. (2015). Comparing potential carbon sequestration of different parts of mountain almond and grape plants and soil in Fars province. Journal of Natural Environment, 68 (2): 257-265.

Goldemberg, J. (2007). Ethanol for a sustainable energy future. Science, 315 (5813), 808-810.

Graham, M. H., Haynes, R. J., & Meyer, J. H. (2002). Soil organic matter content and quality: effects of fertilizer applications, burning and trash retention on a long-term sugarcane experiment in South Africa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 34 (1), 93-102.

IBM Corp. (2010). IBM SPSS statistics for Windows.Ver. 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (1996). Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry. IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Kanagawa, Japan. 12 p. [http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf.html]. Accessed at: 12/11/2016.

IPCC, (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2015). Mitigation of climate change. Vol. 3. Cambridge University Press. 1435 p., [http:// www. mitigation2014. org/] Accessed at: 24/05/2017.

Jafarian, Z., & Tayefeh, S.A.L. (2013). Carbon sequestration potential in dry farmed wheat in Kiasar region. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23(1): 31-41 (In Farsi with English abstract).

Kottek, M., J.Grieser, C.Beck, B.Rudolf, and F.Rubel. (2006). World map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorologische Zeitschrif ,15(3):259–263.

Lal, R. (2001). World cropland soils as a source or sink for atmospheric carbon. Advances in Agronomy. 71, 145-191.

Li, Y.L., L. Wang, W.Q. Zhang, S.P. Zhang, H.L. Wang, X.H. Fu, and Y.Q.Le. (2010). Variability of soil carbon sequestration capability and microbial activity of different systems of salt marsh soils at Chongming Dongtan. Ecological Engineering, 36 (12): 1754-1760.

Meier, E. A., Thorburn, P. J., Wegener, M. K., & Basford, K. E. (2006). The availability of nitrogen from sugarcane trash on contrasting soils in the wet tropics of North Queensland. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 75 (1-3), 101-114.

Minitab 16 Statistical Software. (2010). Minitab computer software. State College. PA: Minitab, Inc.

Nadeu, E., Gobin, A., Fiener, P., Van Wesemael, B., & Van Oost, K. (2015). Modelling the impact of agricultural management on soil carbon stocks at the regional scale: the role of lateral fluxes. Global Change Biology, 21 (8), 3181-3192.

Nosetto, M. D., Jobbágy, E. G., & Paruelo, J. M. (2006). Carbon sequestration in semi-arid rangelands: comparison of Pinus ponderosa plantations and grazing exclusion in NW Patagonia. Journal of Arid Environments, 67 (1), 142-156.

Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. & Keeney. D.R. (1982). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy. Madison, WI.

Reeder, J.D., & Schuman, G.E. (2002). Influence of livestock grazing on C sequestration in semi-arid mixed-grass and short-grass rangelands. Environmental Pollution, 116 (3), 457-463.

Sadeghi, H., & Raeini, M. G. N. (2016). Capability investigation of carbon sequestration in Artemisia aucheri Bioss. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 13 (1), 159-164.

Scharlemann, J. P., Tanner, E. V., Hiederer, R., & Kapos, V. (2014). Global soil carbon: understanding and managing the largest terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon Management, 5 (1), 81-91.

Sefeedpari, P., Shokoohi, Z., & Behzadifar, Y. (2014). Energy use and carbon dioxide emission analysis in sugarcane farms: a survey on Haft-Tappeh Sugarcane Agro-Industrial Company in Iran. Journal of Cleaner Production, 83, 212-219.

Singh, M., & Sharma, R.K. (1991). Microbial population and decomposition of surgarcane trash at different relative humidity. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 39 (1):189-190.

Smith, P. (2004). Carbon sequestration in croplands: the potential in Europe and the global context. European Journal of Agronomy, 20(3), 229-236.

Suman, A., Singh, K. P., Singh, P., & Yadav, R. L. (2009). Carbon input, loss and storage in sub-tropical Indian Inceptisol under multi-ratooning sugarcane. Soil and Tillage Research, 104(2), 221-226.

Tominaga, T.T., F.A.M. Cassaro, O.O.S. Bacchi, K. Reichardt, J.C.M. Oliveira, and Tominaga, T. T., Cassaro, F. A. M., Bacchi, O. O. S., Reichardt, K., Oliveira, J. C. M., & Timm, L. C. (2002). Variability of soil water content and bulk density in a sugarcane field. Soil Research, 40 (4), 604-614.

West, T.O., & Marland, G. (2002). A synthesis of carbon sequestration, carbon emissions, and net carbon flux in agriculture: comparing tillage practices in the United States. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 91 (1-3), 217-232.

Yadav, R. L., Prasad, S. R., Singh, R., & Srivastava, V. K. (1994). Recycling sugarcane trash to conserve soil organic carbon for sustaining yields of successive ratoon crops in sugarcane. Bioresource Technology, 49 (3), 231-235.