Evaluation of land productivity, competition and insect diversity in different intercropping patterns of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) under low-input condition

Document Type: Full Article

Authors

1 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, I.R. Iran

2 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, I.R. Iran.

3 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, I. R. Iran

4 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Tehran, I. R. Iran.

5 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, I. R. Iran

Abstract

Intercropping is a sustainable practice to achieve higher production with the aim to limit external inputs. A field experiment was conducted at the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran, during 2016 growing seasons with ten treatments to evaluate the yield, analyze the competition and insect’s assemblages in sunflower (as main plant)/soybean (as companion plant) intercropping. Treatments included sunflower sole cropping, soybean sole cropping, replacing intercropping sunflower with soybean (50:50, 34:66, 66:34, 40:60, 60:40, 25:75) and additive intercropping of two plants (100:50 and 100:100%). Results showed that the highest sunflower grain yield (275 g m-2) was obtained in sunflower monoculture that was not significantly different with intercropping ratios of 25:75 and 60:40. Also, the highest and lowest grain yield of soybean was achieved in soybean monoculture (130.1 g m-2) and ratio of 100:50 (48.5 g m-2), respectively. The highest land equivalent ratio, monetary advantage index and intercropping advantage value was obtained in intercropping ratio of 25:75. Moreover, in all cropping patterns the aggressivity (A) and crowding ratio (CR) values of sunflower were higher than soybean, indicating that sunflower was the dominant species.  Also, the highest density for herbivores was recorded in soybean monoculture and the families of Thripidae (37.60- 43.87%) and Cicadellidae (34.01-37.71%) had the most relative density. Furthermore, intercropping of sunflower with soybean increased pollinators and natural enemies’ abundance compared with monocultures. Overall, based on the ecological, agronomical and economical indices intercropping sunflower with soybean with ratio of 25:75 is a feasible alternative method to achieve similar production with respect to monocropping.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

ارزیابی راندمان زمین، رقابت و تنوع حشرات در الگوهای مختلف کشت مخلوط آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.) و سویا (Glycine max L.) در شرایط کم‌نهاده

Authors [Persian]

  • عبدالله جوانمرد 1
  • مصطفی امانی ماچیانی 2
  • علی استادی 3
  • اکبر سیفی 4
  • سمیرا خدایاری 5
1 1گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ج. ا. ایران.
2 گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ج. ا. ایران.
3 گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ج. ا. ایران
4 گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ج. ا. ایران
5 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

کشت مخلوط به عنوان یک روش پایدار تولید با هدف استفاده حداقل از نهاده‌های خارجی محسوب می‌شود. در همین راستا یک آزمایش مزرعه‌ای با ده تیمار به منظور ارزیابی عملکرد، واکاوی رقابت و تنوع حشرات در کشت مخلوط سویا با آفتابگردان در فصل زراعی 1395 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل کشت خالص آفتابگردان (به عنوان گیاه اصلی)، کشت خالص سویا (به عنوان گیاه همراه) و نسبت‌های مختلف کشت مخلوط جایگزینی (50:50، 34:66، 66:34، 40:60، 60:40 و 25:75) و افزایشی (100:50 و 100:100) آفتابگردان- سویا بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان (275 گرم در متر مربع) در کشت خالص آن بدست آمد که با الگوی کشت 25 درصد آفتابگردان+ 75 درصد سویا و 60 درصد آفتابگردان+ 40 درصد سویا تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت. همچنین بیشترین (1/130 گرم در متر مربع) و کمترین (5/48 گرم در متر مربع)  عملکرد دانه سویا به‌ترتیب در کشت خالص سویا و الگوی 100 درصد آفتابگردان+ 50 درصد سویا حاصل شد. علاوه بر این، بالاترین نسبت برابری زمین، شاخص سودمندی مالی و سودمندی کشت مخلوط در الگوی 25 درصد آفتابگردان+ 75 درصد سویا بدست آمد. همچنین در همه الگوهای کشت، غالبیت جزیی و ضریب ازدحام نسبی آفتابگردان بیشتر از سویا بود که نشان دهنده توانایی رقابت بیشتر آفتابگردان نسبت به سویا است. در ضمن بالاترین تراکم حشرات علفخوار در کشت خالص سویا ثبت شد. خانواده‌های حشرات Thripidae و Cicadellidae دارای بیشترین تراکم نسبی بودند. علاوه بر این، کشت مخلوط آفتابگردان با سویا فراوانی حشرات گرده‌افشان و دشمنان طبیعی را نسبت به کشت‌های خالص افزایش داد. همچنین بیشترین شاخص شانون در الگوی کشت مخلوط افزایشی کامل حاصل شد. به طور کلی، بر اساس شاخص­های زراعی، اکولوژیک و اقتصادی کشت مخلوط 25 درصد آفتابگردان+ 75 درصد سویا به عنوان یک روش جایگزین جهت حصول عملکردی مشابه کشت خالص آفتابگردان معرفی می­گردد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • حشرات علفخوار
  • کشت مخلوط
  • کارایی استفاده از زمین
  • شاخص شانون
  • نسبت برابری زمین
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