Hazard assessment of livestock pressure in Khuzestan province, Iran

Document Type: Full Article


Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran


ABSTRACT- Overgrazing accelerates soil and vegetation degradation in rangelands. This study aimed to assess livestock pressure on natural resources of Khuzestan province, located in the south western part of Iran, using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and a model-based procedure. FAO/UNEP Model which uses a ratio of potential carrying capacity of region to current livestock population density as an Index for livestock pressure was selected for this purpose. However, the model was modified in this study to achieve a better estimation of pressure index according to the actual conditions of the region. Parameters used to modify this methodology were: Topographic and Local parameters. Local parameters were annual consumption for livestock unit in the study area, dependency of each livestock to pasture, number of livestock unit for each animal and land use map. Hazard map of pressure of livestock was prepared after overlying and calculating different parameters in a GIS. According to the results, hazard classes of severe and very severe included about 70% of natural resources in the study area. Areas including higher classes of hazard severity were identified in the west, center and south east part of the region, mostly. This is because of low potential of natural rangeland to grow enough forage and also a high number of livestock


Article Title [Persian]

ارزیابی خطر فشار دام در استان خوزستان، ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • مریم الهایی سحر
  • مسعود مسعودی
گروه مهندسی منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج. ا. ایران.
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده- چرای بیش از حد، تخریب خاک و پوشش گیاهی در مراتع را افزایش می دهد. در این مطالعه ارزیابی فشار دام در منابع طبیعی استان خوزستان، که در جنوب غربی ایران واقع شده است با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS)  و یک مدل انجام شد. بدین منظور از مدل فائو-یونپ که بر اساس نسبت ظرفیت برد بالقوه منطقه به تراکم فعلی جمعیت دام ، فشار دام را بررسی می نماید استفاده شد. با این حال، به منظور دستیابی به ارزیابی بهتر فشار دام با توجه به شرایط واقعی منطقه اصلاحاتی روی این مدل صورت گرفت. پارامترهایی که برای اصلاح روش استفاده شد عبارتند از: پارامترهای توپوگرافی و محلی. پارامترهای محلی شامل مصرف سالانه واحد دامی در منطقه مورد مطالعه، وابستگی هر دام به مرتع، تعداد واحد دامی برای هر حیوان و نقشه کاربری اراضی بودند. نقشه خطر فشار دام پس از همپوشانی و محاسبه پارامترهای مختلف درGIS  تهیه شد. با توجه به نتایج، کلاس خطر شدید و بسیار شدید حدود 70 درصد از منابع طبیعی در منطقه مورد مطالعه را شامل می شود. طبقات با شدت خطر بالا بیشتر در مناطق غرب، مرکز تا جنوب شرق منطقه مورد مطالعه مشاهده شد. این مسئله به دلیل پتانسیل کم مراتع طبیعی در رشد کافی علوفه و همچنین وجود تعداد زیادی از دام در این مناطق می باشد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه های کلیدی:
  • فشار دام
  • واحد دامی
  • منابع طبیعی
  • GIS
Amiri E., Masoudi, M, Fallah Shamsi, R., & Taghvaei, M. (2008). Hazard evaluation of livestock Pressure on natural rangeland of Iran.  International Pollution Research, 27 (4), 611 – 615.

Ahmadian, M., Darvish, M., Sadeghimanesh, M. (2014). Assessment and mapping the total risk of desertification using FAO and UNEP modified method (case study: Gharachay watershed). Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 21 (4), 604-619.

Andriamandroso, A., Bindelle, J, Mercatoris, B., & Lebeau, F. (2016). A review on the use of sensors to monitor cattle jaw movements and behavior when grazing. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, 20 (1), 273-286.

Asadu, C. L. A., Ike O. O., & Ugwuoke, B. O. (1999). Cattle grazing and environment in eastern Nigeria: Impact on soil physical properties. Outlook on Agriculture, 28, 103-107.

Dregne, H. E. (2002). Land degradation in dry lands. Arid Land Research and Management, 16, 99-132.

Erlich, P. R. (1988). The loss of diversity: causes and consequences. In: Wilson, E.O., Peter, F.M. (Eds.), Biodiversity. National Academic Press, Washington, DC.

FAO/UNEP. (1984). Provisional methodology for assessment and mapping of desertification. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Faraggitaki, M. A. (1985). Desertification by heavy grazing in Greece: the case of Lesvos Island. Journal of Arid Environments, 9, 237–242.

Jahad-e-Keshavarzi Organization of Fars. (2007). Statistics of Livestock in Fars Province. Ministry of Jahade Agriculture, Shiraz, Iran.

Habib,  G., Ullah Khan, M., Javaid, S., & Saleem, M. (2016). Assessment of Feed Supply and Demand for Livestock in Pakistan. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, A 6, 191-202.

Kharin, N. G. (1986). Desertification assessment and mapping: a case study of Turkmenistan, USSR. Annals of Arid Zone, 25, 1-17.

Le Houerou, H. N. (1996). Climate change, drought and desertification. Journal of Arid Environments, 34, 133-185.

Le Houerou, H. N., & Hoste, C. H. (1977). Rangeland production and annual rainfall relations in the Mediterranean Basin and in the African Sahelo- Sudanian zone. Journal of Range Management, 30, 181-189. 

Masoudi, M., & Asrari, E. (2006). A new model for assessing of livestock pressure: a case study- Southern Iran. Ecology Environment and Conservation, 12(3), 391-398.

Masoudi, M., Gore, S. D., & Alavi Panah, S. K. (2005). A new methodology using GIS for assessing of livestock pressure in the Qareh Aghaj Sub Basin, Southern Iran. Nature, Environment and Pollution Technology, 4(4), 561-566.

Mwendra, E. J., & Mohammad Saleem, M. A. (1996). Infiltration rates surface runoff and soil loss as influenced by grazing pressure in the Ethiopian highlands. Soil Use and Management, 13, 29-35.

Natural Resources Bureau of Fars Province. (2003). Livestock report. Ministry of Jahade Agriculture, Shiraz, Iran.

Noy Meir, J., & Seligman, K. (1979). Management of semi-arid ecosystems in Israel. In: Walker, B.H. (Ed.), Management of Semi-arid Ecosystems. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Perevolotsky, A., & Seligman, N. G. (1998). Role of grazing in Mediterranean rangeland ecosystems. BioScience, 48, 1007–1017.

Pour, H. Z., & Ejtehadi, H. (1997). Grazing effects on diversity of rangeland vegetation:  a case study in MoutehPlain, Iran.  Acta Botanica Hungarica, 40 (1–4), 271–280.

Research Institute of Planning and Agricultural Economics (2000) Complete studies for rehabilitation and development of agriculture and natural resource in the Fars Province: Erosion and soil conservation report. Ministry of Jahad and Agriculture,  Iran.

Shaoliang, Y. I., Ning, W. U., Peng, L., Qian, W., Fusun, S., Geng, S., & Jianzhong, M. (2007). Changes in Livestock Migration Patterns in a Tibetan-style Agropastoral System. Journal of Mountain Research and Development, 27(2), 138-145.

Smith BD. (1995). The Emergence of Agriculture. Ltd, New York, NY: Scientific American Library, distributed by W. H. Freeman & Co.

Soderstrom, B., Part, T., & Linnarsson, E. (2001). Grazing effects on between-year variations of farmland bird communities.  Ecological Applications, 11 (4), 1141–1150.

Taddese, Y. (2001). Land degradation: A challenge to Ethiopia. Environmental Management, 27, 815-824.

Warren, A., Sud, Y. C., & Rozamov, B. (1996). The future of deserts. Journal of Arid Environments, 32, 75-89.

Wilson, E. O. (1992). The Diversity of Life. Cambridge, MA, USA: Belknap Press.

Yates, C. J., Norton, D. A., & Hobbs, R. J. (2000). Grazing effects on plant cover, soil and microclimate in fragmented woodlands in southwest Australia: implications for restoration. Austral Ecology, 25 (1), 36–47.