Sustainability of environmental management in Iran: An ecological footprint analysis

Document Type: Full Article

Authors

1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran

2 Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Global Footprint Network, 312 Clay Street, Oakland, CA 94607-3510, USA

3 Department of Environmental Studies, University of California Santa Cruz, USA

Abstract

ABSTRACT- Sustainability and environmental management are the most cited ideas linking the environment and development. The sustainability of natural resources depends upon our paradigm and related approaches to the relationship between society and the environment. Efficient management is a primary task due to the pressure on nature. Ecological footprint analysis has been introduced as an appropriate environmental management tool to address the environmental challenges that Iran is facing and to determine solutions. It is a resource accounting tool which could be applied in environmental planning and management focusing on natural resource consumption. Reviewing and analyzing the biocapacity (BC) and ecological footprint (EF) of Iran in the timeline of 1962-2011 was the main purpose of the study. Based on the findings, EF trend of the country has an increasing trend over time while the BC has a reverse trend. The consumption by farmers and other agricultural actors from resources has been greater than the country`s regenerative capacity regarding the BC and EF of cropland. The sustainability gap has been greater over time due to population growth and other related factors. Despite the different environmental rules and regulations, there was no improvement or progress in sustainability achievement in Iran. Returning to the condition in which EF equals BC is the least action required to decrease the pressure on nature. Effective and suitable environmental policies are needed in order to address the policy gap as well as reduce the EF level to the balance point by appropriate executive activities covering the implementation gap. 

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

پایداری مدیریت محیط زیست در ایران: تحلیل ردّپای اکولوژیک

Authors [Persian]

  • مهسا فاطمی 1
  • کورش رضائی مقدم 1
  • ماتیس واکرنا گل 2
  • کارول شنان 3
1 گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج. ا. ایران.
2 شبکه جهانی ردپا ، اوکلند، کالیفرنیا، آمریکا
3 گروه مطالعات محیط زیست، دانشگاه سنتا کروز کالیفرنیا، آمریکا
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده- پایداری و مدیریت محیط زیست به عنوان دو مقوله اصلی، مفاهیم محیط زیست و توسعه را به یکدیگر پیوند می دهند. پایداری منابع طبیعی تحت تأثیر پارادایم فکری افراد و رهیافت های مرتبط با آن بوده و بر آن اساس می توان در مورد رابطه بین انسان و محیط زیست به قضاوت پرداخت. اتخاذ نظام مدیریتی کارآمد در حوزه محیط زیست، زیربنایی ترین اقدام برای کاهش فشار بر منابع می باشد. در مطالعه حاضر تحلیل ردّپای اکولوژیک به عنوان ابزاری مناسب در مدیریت محیط زیست بکار برده شد تا چالش های زیست محیطی ایران مشخص گردیده و راهکارهای سازنده ای برای رفع آن ها معرفی شود. در واقع ردّپای اکولوژیک ابزاری برای محاسبه دقیق میزان مصرف منابع طبیعی بوده و در مدیریت و برنامه ریزی های زیست محیطی کاربردهای سودمندی دارد. هدف اصلی از این مقاله بررسی و تحلیل روند تاریخی ظرفیت زیستی و ردّپای اکولوژیک در دوره زمانی سال های 1341 تا1390     می باشد. طبق یافته های پژوهش میزان ردّپای اکولوژیک ایران در بازه زمانی مورد مطالعه روندی صعودی داشته در حالی که روند ظرفیت زیستی در حال کاهش بوده است. طبق داده های حاصل از محاسبات ظرفیت زیستی و ردّپای اکولوژیک در حوزه کشاورزی، میزان مصرف منابع طبیعی توسط زارعین و سایر کنشگران حوزه کشاورزی بسیار بیشتر از توانایی بازتولید منابع کشور بوده است. شکاف پایداری با توجه به روند افزایش جمعیت و سایر عوامل مرتبط در گذر زمان بزرگ تر شده است. علی رغم تصویب قواعد و قوانین زیست محیطی مختلف طی سال های اخیر در ایران اما پیشرفت چندانی در دستیابی به پایداری مشاهده نمی شود. کمترین اقدام در راستای کاهش فشار بر منابع طبیعی، بازگشت به نقطه سر به سر و حالتی است که میزان ردّپای اکولوژیک برابر با ظرفیت زیستی کشور باشد. در واقع ایران از یک سو به منظور کاهش شکاف سیاستگذاری ها نیازمند اتخاذ سیاست های زیست محیطی کارآمد توسط مقامات عالی کشور بوده و از سوی دیگر نیز تلاش هایی برای انجام فعالیت های اجرایی متناسب به هدف کاهش میزان ردّپای اکولوژیک و شکاف اجرایی ضروری است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه های کلیدی:
  • مدیریت محیط زیست
  • کشاورزی
  • پایداری
  • ردّپای اکولوژیک
  • ظرفیت زیستی
  • ایران

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