Impact of water deficit on critical period of pigweed (amaranthus retroflexus l.) in sunflower

Document Type: Full Article

Authors

1 Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran

2 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran

Abstract

ABSTRACT-The critical period of weed control is a part of crop life cycle during which weeds must be kept weed-free to avoid yield losses due to competition. In order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation on critical period of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an experiment was carried out  as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the experimental farm of  College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Factors were water deficit at three levels (100%, 75% and 50% of field capacity) as main plots and weed interference periods in weedy and weed-free plots at five sunflower growth stages (8-leaf, 12-leaf, head emergence, flowering and maturity) as subplots. Results showed that water deficit decreased grain yield and grain yield components in both years. Critical period of redroot pigweed in normal irrigation with accepting 5% yield loss in sunflower was 35-86 DAP (days after planting) in the first year and 49-94 DAP in the second year. By decreasing irrigation water to 75%FC and 50%FC, the length of critical period increased to 34-100 and 32-105 DAP in the first year and 50-101 DAP and 44-98 DAP in the second year of the study, respectively. Generally, our results showed water deficit extended the length of critical period of redroot pigweed in sunflower.
Nomenclature: Redroot pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L.; Sunflower, Helianthus annuus L.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

اثر کم آبیاری بر دوره ی بحرانی کنترل علف هرز تاج خروس (Amaranthus retroflexus L) در آفتابگردان

Authors [Persian]

  • زهرا کیامرثی 1
  • سید عبدالرضا کاظمینی 1
  • حبیب اله حمزه زرقانی 2
1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز ، ج. ا. ایران
2 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده-دوره بحرانی کنترل علف هرز یکی از بخش های چرخه زندگی گیاه زراعی است که با کنترل علف هرز از تلفات عملکردی گیاه زراعی در رقابت با علف هرز جلوگیری می­کند. به منظور بررسی اثر کم آبیاری و دوره بحرانی تاج خروس (Amaranthus retroflexus L) بر رشد و عملکرد آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.)،  آزمایشی مزرعه ای در سال های زراعی 89-1388 و 90-1389 در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل آبیاری به عنوان عامل اصلی(آبیاری نرمال، آبیاری در 75 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه و آبیاری در 50 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه) و علف هرز در دو سطح با و بدون تاج خروس هر کدام در 5 مرحله رشدآفتابگردان (8 برگی، 12 برگی، ظهور طبق، گلدهی و رسیدگی) به عنوان عامل فرعی انتخاب شدند. نتایج نشان داد که کم آبیاری، عملکرد دانه و اجزاء عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان (تعداد دانه در طبق و وزن هزار دانه) در هر دو سال را کاهش داد. طول دوره بحرانی کنترل تاج خروس، با پذیرش افت 5 درصدی عملکرد دانه در تیمار آبیاری نرمال، در سال اول 35 تا 86 و در سال دوم 49 تا 94 روز بعد از کشت بود و با کاهش میزان آب مصرفی تا 75 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه طول دوره بحرانی علف هرز به ترتیب 34 تا 100 روز در سال اول و 50 تا 101 روز بعد از کشت در سال دوم و در 50 درصد ظرفیت، در سال اول 32 تا 105 روز بعد از کشت و در سال دوم 44 تا 98 روز بعد از کشت افزایش یافت. به عبارت دیگر، کم آبیاری طول دوره بحرانی کنترل تاج خروس را افزایش داد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه‏های کلیدی:
  • دوره بحرانی کنترل علف هرز
  • کاهش عملکرد قابل قبول
  • مدل گامپرتز
  • مدل لجستیک
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