Evaluation of selenium and salicylic acid effect on physiological and qualitative characteristics of dry-land wheat cultivars

Document Type: Full Article


Department of Agronomy and plant breeding, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, I. R. Iran


ABSTRACT-This experiment was carried out as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research station of the Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch, Iran, in 2011 and 2012. Experimental factors consisted of three levels of salicylic acid (SA); seed priming with distilled water (hydro priming), seed priming with 0.5 mM SA, and 0.5 mM SA  seed priming 1 mM SA spraying; two levels of selenium (Se); 0 and 20 g ha-1, and three rain-fed wheat cultivars: Azar 2, Sardari, and Rasad. The results showed that SA seed priming combined with foliar application together with spraying of Se increased the relative water content in Azar 2 and Rasad cultivars compared to the hydro priming. The foliar application of Se increased the leaves proline amounts and grain Se concentration in wheat cultivars. Priming with SA combined with a spray of Se decreased the electrolyte leakage by 32% as compared to the control. The application of SA combined with foliar application of Se increased the proline amounts of leaves and grain Se concentration. Seed priming of SA in combination with foliar application of Se increased the grain gluten content in Sardari and Rasad cultivars. The highest productivity index (63.12%) and grain yield (1585.01 kg ha-1) were obtained from Azar 2 cultivar. The results suggested that applying SA and Se may help in alleviating damage and improving the tolerance of drought stress and grain quality in wheat.


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی تاثیر سلنیوم و سالیسیلیک اسید بر خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و کیفیت دانه در ارقام گندم دیم

Author [Persian]

  • نورعلی ساجدی
گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد اراک- دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، اراک، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده - این آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال­های 1390و 1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اراک اجرا شد. عوامل مورد آزمایش شامل سالیسیلیک اسید در سه سطح شامل پیش تیمار بذر با آب مقطر، پیش تیمار بذر با 5/0 میلی مولار سالیسیلیک اسید، پیش تیمار بذر با5/0 میلی مولار سالیسیلیک اسید توام با محلول پاشی 1 میلی مولار سالیسیلیک اسید، سلنیوم در دو سطح، بدون مصرف و محلول­پاشی 20 گرم در هکتار و سه رقم گندم شامل آذر 2، سرداری  و رصد بودند. نتایج نشان داد که پیش تیمار بذر توام با محلول پاشی با سالیسیلیک اسید محتوای آب نسبی برگ در ارقام آذر 2 و رصد را نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد. محلول­پاشی با سلنیوم مقدار پرولین در برگ و غلظت سلنیوم در دانه را در ارقام گندم افزایش داد. پیش تیمار بذر توام با با سالیسیلیک اسید توام با محلول­پاشی با سلنیوم میزان نشت یونی را 32 درصد نسبت به شاهد کاهش داد. محلول­پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید توام با سلنیوم مقدار پرولین برگ و غلظت سلنیوم دانه را افزایش داد. پیش تیمار با سالیسیلیک اسید توام با محلول­پاشی سلنیوم مقدار گلوتن دانه را در ارقام رصد و سرداری افزایش داد. بیشترین شاخص بازآوری (12/63%) و عملکرد دانه (01/1585 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از رقم آذر 2 حاصل شد. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد سالیسیلیک اسید و سلنیوم می تواند خسارت ناشی از تنش خشکی را تعدیل نماید و تحمل به تنش خشکی و کیفیت دانه در گندم را بهبود دهد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه های کلیدی:
  • نشت یونی
  • عملکرد دانه
  • محتوی پرولین برگ
  • محتوی گلوتن مرطوب
Ahmadi, K., Gholizadah, H., Abadzadeh, H., Hatami, F., Fazle Estabragh. M., Hossienpour, R., Kazamian, A., & Rafiei, M. (2016).  Agricultural Statistics. Crop production. Vol 1. Ministry of Agriculture-Jahad. 

Aman, Y.A., Habibi, D., Mashhadi Akbar Boujar, M., & Khodabandeh, N. (2005).  Antioxidant enzyme as index for select of different geno-types of sunflower for drought tolerance. Iranian Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 1(1), 1–11.

Arfan, M., Athar, H.R., & Ashraf, M. (2007). Does exogenous application of salicylic acid through the rooting medium modulate growth and photosynthetic capacity in two differently adapted spring wheat cultivars under salt stress? Journal of Plant Physiology, l64 (6), 685-694.

Bates, L.S., Waldern, R.P., & Treare, I.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39(1), 205–207.

Chaves, M.M., & Oliveira, M.M. (2004). Mechanisms underlying plant resilience to water deficits: prospects for water-saving agriculture. Journal of Experimental Botany,  55(407), 2365-2384.

Daneshyan, J., Majidi Heravan, E., & Jonoubi, P. (2002). Evaluation of drought stress and potassium application on quantitative and qualitative soybean characteristic. Journal Agricultural Sciences, 8(1), 95-108.

Dhopte, A.M., & Manuel, L. M. (2002). Principles and Techniques for Plant Scientists. Lst Ed. Updesh purohit for Agrobios (India).

Dolatabadian, A., Modares Sanavi, M., & Aatemadi, F. (2008). Effect pre-treatment salicylic acid on germination of wheat under salinity stress condition. Iranian Journal of Biology, 21(4), 692-702.

Ducsay, L., & Lozek, O. (2006). Effect of selenium foliar application on its content in winter wheat grain. Plant, Soil and Environment, 52(2), 78–82.

Emami, A. (1996). The Method of Plant Analysis. Issue of  Soil and Water research Institute. No. 982.

Feng, R., Wei, C., & Tu, S. (2013). The roles of selenium in protecting plants against abiotic stresses. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 87, 58–68.

Germ, M., Stibilj, V., & Kreft, I. (2007). Metabolic Importance of Selenium for Plants. The European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology, 1(1):91-97.

Hayat, Q., Hayat, S., Irfan. M., & Ahmad, A. (2010). Effect of Exogenous Salicylic Acid under Changing Environment. A review. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68 (1), 14-25. 

Hawrylak Nowak, B. (2008). Effect of selenium on selected macronutrients in maize plants. Journal of Elementlogy, 13(4), 513-519.

Jiriaie, M. & Sajedi, N.A. (2012). Effect of plant growth regulators on agro physiological traits of wheat (Tritium aestivum L. var. Shahriar) under water deficit stress. Research on Crops, 13(1), 37–45.

Khademi, O., Zamani, Z., Mostofi, Y., Kalantari, S., & Ahmadi, A. (2012). Extending storability of persimmon fruit cv. Karaj by postharvest application of salicylic acid. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 14(5), 1067-1074.

Khan, N., Syeed, S., Masood, A., Naza, R., & Iqbal, N. (2010). Application of salicylic acid increases contents of nutrients and ant oxidative metabolism in mango bean and alleviates adverse effects of salinity stress. International Journal of Plant Biology, 1:e1.1-8.

Kashin, V.K., & Shubina, O.I. (2011). Biological effect and selenium accumulation in wheat under conditions of selenium deficient biogeochemical province, Chemistry for Sustainable Development, 19(2), 145-150.

Lyons, G.H., Genc, Y., Soole, K., Stangoulis, J.C. R., Liu, F. & Graham, R.D. (2009). Selenium increases seed production in Brassica. Plant and Soil, 318(1), 73–80.

Martinez, J.P., Lutts, S. Schank, A. Bajji, M. & Kinet, J.M. (2004). Is osmotic adjustment required for water stress resistance in the Medditeranean shrub Atriplex halimus. L. Journal of Plant Physiology, 161(9), 1041-1051.

Oraghi Ardebili, N., Saadatmand, S. Niknam, V., & Khavari Nejad,  R.A. (2014). The alleviating effects of selenium and salicylic acid in salinity exposed soybean. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 36(12), 3199–3205.

Pirasteh Anosheh, H., Emam, Y., Ashraf, M., & Foolad, M.R. (2012). Exogenous application of salicylic acid and chlormequat chloride alleviates negative effects of drought stress in wheat. Advanced Studies in Biology, 4(11), 501-520.

Pirasteh Anosheha, H., Emama, Y., & Sepaskhah, A.R. (2015). Improving barley performance by proper foliar applied salicylic-acid under saline conditions.  International Journal of Plant Production, 9(3), 467-486.

Rasmussen, J.B., Hammerschmidt, R., & Zook, M.N. (1991). Systematic induction of salicylic acid accumulation in cucumber inoculation with Pseudomonas Syringae pv. Syringae. Plant Physiology, 97(4), 1342-1347.

Ramachandra Reddya, A., Viswanatha Chaitanya, K., & Vivekananda. M. (2004). Drought-induced responses of photosynthesis and anti- oxidant metabolism in higher plants. Journal of Plant Physiology, 161(11), 1189–1202.

Sajedi, N.A., Ardakani, M.R., Madani, H., Naderi, A., & Miransari, M. (2011). The effects of selenium and other micronutrients on the antioxidant activities and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) under drought stress. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 17(3), 215–222.

Sajedi, N.A., Ferasat, M., Mirzakhani, M., & Mashhadi Akbar Boojar, M. (2012). Impact of water deficit stress on biochemical characteristics of safflower cultivars. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 18(4), 323–329.

Sajedi, N.A., & Mashhadi Akbar Boujar, M. (2013). Response of antioxidant compounds to selenium and salicylic acid in wheat cultivars under dry land conditions. Acta Agronomica Hungarians, 61(1), 79–87.

Shamim, A., Rashid, A., Muhammad, Y.A., Ashraf, M., & Ejaz, A.W. (2009). Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) response to drought stress at germination and seedling growth stages. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 41(2), 647–654.

Singh, B., & Usha, K. (2003). Salicylic acid induced physiological and biochemical changes in wheat seedlings under water stress. Plant Growth Regulation, 39(2), 137-141.

Tamaoki, M., Freeman, J.L., Pilon Smits, E.A.H. (2008). Cooperative ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling regulates selenite resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiology, 146(3), 1219– 1230.


Terry, N., Zayed, A.M., De Souza, M., & Tarun, A. (2000). Selenium in higher plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 51, 401-432.

Vahdati Mashhadian, N., Tehran Far, A., Bayat, H., & Selahvarzi, Y. (2012). Salicylic and citric acid treatments improve the vase life of cut chrysanthemum flowers. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 14(4), 879-887.

Valifard, M., Moradshahi, A., & Kholdebarin, B. (2012). Biochemical and physiological responses of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to drought stress applied at seedling stage. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 14, 1567-1578.

Wang, J., Wang, Zh., Maoa, H., Zhaoa, H., & Huanga, D. (2013). Increasing Se concentration in maize grain with soil- or foliar-applied selenite on the Loess Plateau in China. Field Crops Research, 150, 83–90.

Waseem, M., Athar, H.U.R., & Ashraf, M. (2006). Effect of salicylic acid applied through rooting medium on drought tolerance of wheat. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 38(4), 1127-1136.

Wheat national standard, number 2087. (1997). Cereals- sampling method.

Wheat national standard, number 2705. (1995). Cereals and its product.

Yao, X., Chu, J., & Wang, G. (2009). Effects of drought stress and selenium supply on growth and physiological characteristics of wheat seedlings. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 31(5), 1031-1036.

Yao, X., Chu, J., He, X., & Ba, C. (2011). Protective role of selenium in wheat seedlings subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 58(2), 283–289.