Effect of crop rotation on the changes of potassium forms and clay minerals under Mediterranean climatic condition

Document Type: Full Article

Authors

Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, I. R. Iran

Abstract

ABSTRACT-The influence of intensive crop rotation on the distribution of potassium forms and clay mineralogy was assessed under a Mediterranean condition in the Piranshar region, northwest of Iran. For this purpose, surface soil samples in relation to six soil sub-groups from crop rotationfiled (sugar beet, wheat, pea, and barley) over five decades and the adjacent uncultivated lands were described and sampled. Soil analyses were concernedwiththe determination of physicochemical characteristics, clay mineralogy, the forms and adsorption properties of K. XRD-patterns revealed that soils were similar in clay mineral compositions, including illite, smectite, chlorite, and kaolinite for both cultivated and uncultivated soils, but some changes occurred in the peak intensity and position of the minerals mainly chlorite with cropping. Consistent with this, the sharp peak of chlorite (d001, 14.2 Ao) withthe intensity of 1700 to 1800 Cps in the uncultivated lands shifted toward peaks with intensity of about 1000 Cps in the adjacent cultivated soils along with the appearance of a disordered chlorite-vermiculite mineral.A pronounced decline in the solubleK from 0.001 to 0.53 mmol l-1 (a drop from 17 to 87%), exchangeable K from 6 to 115 mg kg-1 (a drop from 5 to 53%), and non-exchangeable K from 9 to 244 mg kg-1 (a drop from 1.5 to 29%) wereobserved for the majority of the studied soils as a result of crop rotation. Under cultivation, K adsorption effectively increased in the Chromic Calcixererts, TypicCalcixerolls, TypicCalcixererts, and TypicHaploxerepts where exchangeable and available K decreased.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

تاثیر علملیات متناوب زراعی بر تغییر شکلهای پتاسیم و کانیهای رسی تحت شرایط اقلیم مدیترانه ای

Authors [Persian]

  • سالار رضاپور
  • فریبا فلاحی
گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه،ج. ا. ایران
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده- این مطالعه با هدف تاثیر کشت های متناوب زراعی بر توزیع شکل های پتاسم و کانی شناسی رس در یک شرایط اقلیمی مدیترانه ای انجام گرفت. برای این منظور، نمونه های خاک سطحی 6 زیرگروه خاک از مزرعه تحت کشت متناوب چغندرقند، گندم، نخود و جو با سابقه بیش از 5 دهه عملیات زراعی و اراضی غیر زراعی همجوار تشریح و نمونه برداری شدند. آنالیز های خاک شامل تعیین خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی، کانی شناسی رس، شکل های مختلف پتاسیم و خصوصیات جذبی پتاسیم بودند. پراش پرتو ایکس نشان داد که خاکها از لحاظ ترکیب کانی های رسی (شامل ایلایت، اسمکتایت، کلرایت و کائولینایت) در خاک های زراعی و غیر زراعی مشابه بودند اما در شکل وموقعیت پیک های این کانی ها مخصوصا" کانی کلرایت تحت تاثیر عملیات زراعی تغییراتی حاصل شده بود. در این راستا، پیک های مربوط به کلرایت (doo1 برابر 2/14 آنگستروم) با شدت 1700 تا 1800 cps در اراضی غیر زراعی به طرف پیک های با شدت 1000cps  همراه با ظهور کانی مخلوط نامنظم کلرایت–ورمیکولایت تغییر یافته بود. در اغلب خاکهای مطالعه شده، یک کاهش قابل توجه در پتاسیم محلول از 001/0 تا 53/0 مول در لیتر (کاهش 17 تا 87 درصد)، پتاسیم تبادلی از 6 تا 115 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم (کاهش 5 تا 53 درصد) و پتاسیم غیر تبادلی از 9 تا 244 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم (کاهش 5/1 تا 28 درصد) تحت تاثیر عملیات زراعی متناوب مشاهده شد. عملیات زراعی بطور موثری جذب پتاسیم را در خاکهای Chromic Calciererts، TypicCalcixerolls، TypicHaploxerepts و TypicCalcixererts افزایش داده بود در حالی که پتاسیم تبادلی و قابل استفاده این خاکها کاهش یافته بود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه های کلیدی:
  • تناوب زراعی
  • کانیهای رسی
  • زیرگروه خاک
  • پتاسیم تبادلی
  • پتاسیم غیر تبادلی
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