The effect of PGPR and alfalfa extract on macronutrient and micronutrient contents of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare)

Document Type: Full Article

Authors

Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water Engineering, University of Zabol, Zabol,, I. R. Iran

Abstract

ABSTRACT- The increasing population and the pastures inability to meet food needs in livestock have led to the increase of cultivates forage plants. In order to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) extract on the growth and concentration of macronutrient and micronutrient contents of  forage sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), an experiment was conducted as factorial aaraned in a completely randomized design with six replications  at Research Greenhouse University of Zabol. The first factor was PGPR (included soil inoculated and non-inoculated (control) medium, and the second factor was alfalfa extract in three concentrations (0, 2 and 4 ppm). The results showed that increasing alfalfa extract concentration significantly increased total plant dry weight as well as the macro and micronutrient contents. The highest and lowest manganese contents were achieved in the 0.004 levels and control of alfalfa extracts, respectively. Copper content in 0.002 level of alfalfa extract showed a 15% increase compared to the control, with no significant difference with 0.004 of alfalfa extracts. PGPR application as growing substrate also significantly increased dry weight as well as manganese, copper and potassium contents of the plant. Also, there was no significant difference in iron content at level 4 per thousand of alfalfa extract in a substrate inoculated with PGPR compared to the non-inoculated substrate. Finally, it is recommended that the effect of alfalfa extract on yield and nutrient concentrations of other plants be examined in the future.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

تأثیر میکروارگانیسم‌های محرک رشد و عصاره یونجه بر مقادیر عناصر پر و کم‌مصرف در سورگوم علوفه‌ای

Authors [Persian]

  • اسماء میری
  • احمد غلامعلی زاده آهنگر
  • مریم قربانی
  • ابراهیم شیر محمدی
بخش علوم خاک، دانشکده مهندسی آب و خاک ، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ج. ا. ایران.
Abstract [Persian]

 





 





چکیده- افزایش روزافزون جمعیت و عدم توانایی مراتع دربرآورد نیاز غذایی دام‌ها موجب شده است که به کشت گیاهان علوفه‌ای بیش از پیش توجه گردد. به منظور بررسی تأثیر میکروارگانیسم­های محرک رشد (PGPR) و عصاره یونجه بر رشد و مقادیر عناصر پر و کم­مصرف در سورگوم علوفه­ای،  آزمایشی گلخانه­ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی و شش تکرار در دانشگاه زابل انجام شد. نخستین فاکتور شامل 2 سطح بستر خاک عدم تلقیح با PGPR و تلقیح شده با PGPR و دومین فاکتور شامل سه سطح صفر، 2 و 4 در هزار عصاره یونجه بودند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش غلظت عصاره یونجه، وزن خشک کل گیاه و به علاوه مقادیر عناصر کم و پرمصرف در سورگوم افزایش یافت. بیشترین و کمترین غلظت منگنز به ترتیب در سطح 004/0 و شاهد عصاره یونجه بدست آمد. غلظت مس در سطح 002/0 عصاره یونجه 15 درصد افزایش نسبت به سطح شاهد نشان داد ولی نسبت به سطح 004/0 عصاره یونجه تفاوت معناداری نداشت. همچنین، اضافه کردن PGPR به بستر رشد منجر به افزایش قابل توجهی در وزن خشک گیاه و به علاوه غلظت آهن، منگنز، مس و پتاسیم شد. در نهایت، تفاوت معنی داری در مقادیر آهن در سطح 4 در هزار عصاره یونجه در بستر تلقیح شده با PGPR در مقایسه با بستر عدم تلقیح وجود نداشت. سرانجام توصیه می­گردد تأثیر عصاره یونجه بر عملکرد و غلظت عناصر غذایی در دیگر گیاهان نیز بررسی شود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه های کلیدی:
  • عصاره یونجه
  • عناصر غذایی
  • وزن خشک
Ahmed, S.H., Gendy, A.H., Hussein, A.A.M., SaidAl, A.H.L., & MohamedHanaa, F.Y. (2013). Effect of some nitrogen sources, bio-fertilizers and their interaction on the growth, seed yield and chemical composition of guar plants. Life Science Journal, 10(3), 389-402.

 Amal, G., Ahmed, S., Orabi, A., & Gomaa, M. (2010). Bio-organic farming of grain sorghum and its effect on growth, physiological and yield parameters and antioxidant enzymes activity. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 6(3), 270-279.

Bahraminejad, S., Asenstorfer, R.E., Riley, I.T., & Schultz, C.J. (2008). Analysis of the antimicrobial activity of flavonoids and saponins isolated from the shoots oats. (Avena sativa L.) Journal of Phytopathol. 156: 1–7.

Behbood, M., Golchin, A., & Besharati,H. (2011). The effects of phosphorus and inoculation with Pplant growth promoting rhizobacter (PGPR), pseudomonas fluorescent, on yield and quality of potato tuber (Agria Cultivar). Journal of Water and Soil, 26 (2), 260-271.

Berry, J.W., Chappell, D.G., & Barnes, R.B. (1946). Imporved Method of Flame Photometry. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Analitical edition, 18 (1), 19-24.

Bhattacharyya, P.N., & Jha, D.K. (2012). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World Journal Microbiology and Biotechnology, 28, 1327-1350.

Biembaum, J.A., Houtz, R.L., & Ries, S.K. (1988). Field study with crops treated with colloidally dispersed triacontanol. Journal American Society Horticultural Science, 113(5), 679-684.

Bittenbender, H.C., Dilley, D.R., Wert, V., & Ries, S.K. (1978). Environmental parameters affecting dark response of rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) to triacontanol. Plant Physioogyl, 61, 851-854.

Black, C.A. (1982). Method of soil analysis. Vol. 2, Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy, USA, Madison.

Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J. L.,  Ensminger, L.E., & Clark, F.E. (1965). Methods of soil chemical analysis  . American Socityof  Agronomy,Madison,Madison:WI.

Chopra, N., Nayar, L., & Chopra, C. (1986). Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, 16-35.

Day, P.R. (1965). Particle fractionation and particle size analysis., In: Black CA, Evans, D.D., White, L.J., Ensminger, L.E., & Clark, F.E. (Eds.); Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Dursun, A., Ekinci, M., & FigenDonmez, M. (2010). Effects of foliar application of plant growth promoting bacterium on chemical contents, yield and growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(5), 3349-3356.

Ekinci, M., Turan, M., Yildirim, E., Güneş, A., Kotan, R., & Dursun, A. (2014). Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on growth, nutrient, organic acid, amino acid and hormone concentration of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Botrytis) transplants. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum-Hortorum Cultus,13(6), 71-85.

Ericksen, A.B., Sellden, G., Skogen, D., & Nilssen, S. (1981). Comparative analysis of the effect of triacontanol on photosynthesis, photorespiration and growth of tomato (C3 plant) and maize (C4-plant). Planta, 152, 44-49.

Havlin, J.L., & Sultanpour, P.N. (1981). Evaluation of the AB-DTPA soil test for iron and zinc. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 45, 55-70.

Karakurt, H., & Aslantas, R. (2010). Effects of some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains on plant growth and leaf nutrient content of apple. Journal  Fruit and Ornament Plant Research, 18(1), 101-110.

Khalili, A., Akbari, N., & Chaichi, M.R. (2008). Limited irrigation and phosphorus fertilizer effects on yield and yield components of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Var. Kimia). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 3 (5), 697-702.

Knowles, N.R., & Ries, S.K. (1981). Rapid  growth and apparent total nitrogen increases in rice and corn plants following application of Triacontanol. Plant Physiology, 68, 1279-1284.

Kumar, R., & Chandra, R. (2008). Influence of PGPR and PSB on Rhizobium leguminosarum Bv. viciae strain competition and symbiotic performance in lentil. World Journal Agricultural Science, 4 (3), 297-301.

Liu, X., Feng, Z., Zhang S., Zhang, J., Xiao, Q., & Wang, Y. (2006). Preparation and testing of cementing nano-subnano composites of slower controlled release of fertilizers. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 39, 1598-1604.

Lucy, M., Reed, E., & Glick, B.R. (2004). Applications of free living plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 86, 1-25.

Madani, H., Malboobi, M.A., Bakhshkelarestaghi, K., & Stoklosa, A. (2011). Biological and chemical phosphorus fertilizers effect on yield and P accumulation in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici, 40 (2), 210-214.

Mahadevappa, M., Nurthy, R.A., & Biradar, B.B. (1989). Effect of triacontanol on rice seedlings weight and gain yield. International Rice Research Center News letter, 14, 26-29.

Maugh, T.H. (1981). New chemicals promise larger crops: synthetic analogs of brassinolide prove very effective, while the mystery of triacontanols inconsistency may finally have been solved. Science, 212, 33-34.

Mir, S., Sirousmehr, A., & Shirmohammadi, E. (2015). Effect of nano and biological fertilizers on carbohydrate and chlorophyll content of forage sorghum (Speedfeed hybrid). International Journal of Biosciences, 6 (4), 157-164.

Mishra, M., Patjoshi, A.K., & Jena, D. (1998). Effect of biofertilization on production of maize (Zea mays). Indian Journal of  Agronomy, 43, 307–310.

Mohammadi, G.R., Eghbal Ghobadi, M., & SheikhehPoor, S. (2012). Phosphate biofertilizer, row spacing and plant density effects on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and weed growth. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3, 425-429.

Moore, T.C., (1989). Biochemistry and physiology of plant hormones. . New York, Springer.

Muthuchelian, K., Velayutham M., & Nedunchezhian, N. (2003). Ameliorating effect of triacontanol on acidic mist-treated Erythrina variegate seedlings changes in growth and photosynthetic activities. Plant Science, 165, 1253-1257.

Naiman, A.D., Alejandra Latronico, I. E., & DeSalamone, G.(2009). Inoculation of wheat with Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens: Impact on the production and culturable rhizosphere microflora. EuropeanJournal of Soil Biology, 45, 44-51.

Nazari, F., Farahmand, H., Eshghi, S., Niki, M., & Eslamzade, M. 2008. The effect of different soil amendments on growth and flowering of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) ‘Queen’. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 16, 403-415.

Nelson, D.W., & Sommers,  L.E. (1996). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, 2nd Ed, Page, A. L. et al., (Ed.), Agronomy. American Society of Agronomy. Inc. Madison, WI.

Olsen, S.R., Sommers, L.E. (1982). Phosphorus. In Page, A.L., Miller, L.H., & Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Agronomy Monograph, Second Ed., Vol. 9, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Patton, C., & Crouch, S. (1977). Determination of serum urea enzymatically. Anal. Chem, 94, 464-496.

Piromyou, P., Buranabanyat, B., Tantasawat, P., Tittabutr, P., Boonkerd, N., & Teaumroong, N. (2011). Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation on microbial community structure in rhizosphere of forage corn cultivated in Thailand. European Journal of  Soil Biology, 47, 44-45.

Prasad, M., &  Prasad, R. (1991). Effect of triacontanol on rice growth and yield. lndian Journal of Agronomy, 36,75- 7.

Rahi, A.R. (2013). Effect of nitroxin biofertilizer on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus retroflexus. Iranian Journal of Plant Physiolgy, 4 (1), 899-905.

Rhoades, J.D. (1996). Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved salts. In sparks, D. L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H., Soltanpour, P.N., Tabatabai, M.A., Johnston, C.T., & Sumner, M.E. (Eds.). Methods of soil Analysis. Part 3: Chemical methodspp. 417- 436. Soil Science Society of America Book Series Number 5. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Ries, S.K. (1985).Regulation of plant growth with triacontanol. CRC Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 2(3), 239-285.

Ries, S.K., Wert, V., & Biernbaum, J.A. (1984). Interference of triacontanol activity by chemical constituents present in experimental and field sprayers. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 109, 145-150.

Ries, S.K., Bittenbender, H.,  Hangarter, R.,  Kolker, L., Morris, G., & Wert, V. (1977a). Improved growth and yield of crops from organic supplements. In Energy and Agriculture pp.377-384. New York, Academic Press.

Ries, S.K., Wert, V.F., Sweeley C.C., & Leavitt, R.A.(1977b). Triacontanol: a new naturally occurring plant growth regulator. Science, 195,1339-41.

Ries, S. (1991). Triacontanol and its secondary messenger 9-Adenosine as plant growth  substances. Plant Physiology, 95, 986-989.

Ries, S.K., Richman, T.L., & Wert, V.F. (1978). Growth and yield of crops treated with triacontanol. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 103, 361-364.

Salisbury, F.B., & Ross, C.W. (1992). Plant Physiology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Seyedsharifi, R., & Hokmalipur, S. (2010). Forage Plants Cultivation. Mohaghegh Ardabili University and Amidie Tabriz Publishers.

 Shikur, T.K. (2012). Alfalfa extract as a plant growth regulator: Response of troyer citrange (Citrus Sinensis X Poncirus Trifoliata) seedlings to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) crude extract. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Sobin, C., Parisi, N., & Schaub, T. ( 2011). Bland–Altman comparison of the lead care system and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for detecting low-level lead in child whole blood samples. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 7, 24–32.

Tandon, H.L.S., & Sekhon, G.S. (1988). Potassium Research and Agricultural Production in India. New Delhi, Fertiliser Development and Consultation Organization.

Tandom, H.L.S, (1995). Methods of Analysis of soils, plants, Water and Fertiliser. India, New Dehli.

Thomas, G.W. (1996). Soil pH and soil acidity., In Sparks, D.L. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3 chemical methods. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin.

Turan, M., Ataoglu, N., & Sahin, F. (2006). Evaluation of the capacity of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi on different forms of phosphorus in liquid culture. Sustain. Agriculture, 28, 99-108.

Westerman, L.R. (1990). Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Soil Science Society of America, INC. USA, Wisconsin, Madison.

Zahir, A.Z., Arshad, M., & Frankenberger, W.F. (2004). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: applications and perspectives in agriculture. Advances in Agronomy, 81, 97-168.

Zaied, K.A., ElHady,  A.,  Aida, H., Afify, A.H., & Nassef, M.A. (2003). Yield and nitrogen assimilation of winter wheat inoculated with new recombinant inoculants of rhizobacteria. Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 6, 344-358.