Response of cereals to cycocel application (Review article)

Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 National Salinity Research Center, Yazd, I. R. Iran

2 Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, I. R. Iran

3 Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Abstract

ABSTRACT- Growth retardants are natural or synthetic chemical substances which are directly applied to crops to alter some structural processes. It is expected that these alterations modify hormonal balance and growth leading to increased yield, improved crop quality or facilitated harvesting. Cycocel (CCC) or chlormequat chloride (2-chloro ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) as a synthetic growth retardant has been recommended for wheat since 1960s. Cycocel inhibits gibberellin biosynthesis via blocking ent-kaurene synthesis in the metabolic pathway of gibberellin production, resulting in reduced amounts of active gibberellins and consequent reduction in stem elongation. The stem shortening effect of cycocel in such cereals as wheat seems to be less important, due to release of many dwarf and semi dwarf wheat cultivars. However, using cycocel in cereal fields would be inevitable if its effect on grain yield is definite and this area needs further investigation. Importance of cycocel is greater under environmental stress conditions, and more research needs to be focused on cycocel-induced stress tolerance. In this paper, the current knowledge and possible applications of cycocel, which can be used to improve the growth and yield of cereals, have been reviewed and discussed. The role of cycocel to mitigate the harmful effects of drought and salt stresses in cereals is also examined. Furthermore, various biochemical and physiological processes leading to improved cereal crop production under the influence of cycocel are discussed.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [Persian]

پاسخ غلات به کاربرد سایکوسل (مقاله مروری)

Authors [Persian]

  • هادی پیرسته انوشه 1
  • یحیی امام 2
  • عبدل خلیق 3
1 مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری، یزد
2 بخش زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ج.ا. ایران
3 دانشگاه کشاورزی فیصل آباد
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده- کندکننده­های رشد مواد شیمیایی ساخته شده یا طبیعی­ هستند که به طور مستقیم با هدف تغییر برخی فرآیندهای ساختاری گیاه زراعی به­کار می­روند. انتظار می­رود که این مواد تعادل هورمون­ها و رشد را در گیاه بهبود بخشیده منجر به افزایش عملکرد بهبود کیفیت محصول و یا تسهیل در برداشت گیاه زراعی شوند. سایکوسل (CCC) یا کلرمکوات کلراید (2-کلرو اتیل تریمیتیل آمونیم کلرید) به عنوان یک کندکننده رشد ساخته شده از دهه 1960 میلادی برای کاربرد در مزارع گندم پیشنهاد شده است. سایکوسل از راه متوقف کردن ساخت انت-کائرن در مسیر متابولیکی تولید جیبرلین از بیوسنتر جیبرلین جلوگیری می­کند؛ این امر باعث کاهش مقدار جیبرلین فعال و در نتیجه کاهش رشد طولی ساقه می­گردد. به نظر می­رسد هم اکنون با معرفی ارقام متعدد پاکوتاه و نیمه پاکوتاه در برخی غلات مانند گندم، کاربرد سایکوسل با هدف کاهش ارتفاع ساقه از اهمیت کمتری برخوردارباشد. بااین وجود، اگر تاثیر مثبت سایکوسل بر عملکرد دانه قطعیت بیشتری یابد، استفاده از آن در مزارع غلات اجتناب ناپذیر خواهد بود؛ که این موضوع نیازمند انجام پژوهش­های بیشتری است. اهمیت سایکوسل درشرایط تنش های محیطی بیشتر است و چگونگی درک تحمل به تنش القا شده توسط سایکوسل نیاز به پژوهش­های تکمیلی دارد. در این مقاله، دانش حاضر و کاربردهای ممکن سایکوسل را که بتواند برای بهبود رشد و عملکرد غلات استفاده شود، مرور شده و مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. همچنین، نقش سایکوسل در کاهش اثرات زیان بارتنش­های خشکی و شوری در غلات بررسی شده است. علاوه بر این، تنظیم فرآیندهای بیوشیمیایی و فیزیولوژیک ،تحت تاثیر سایکوسل، که منجر به بهبود تولید غلات می شود مورد بحث قرار گرفته است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه های کلیدی:
  • آنتی‌جیبرلین
  • تنش‌های غیرزیستی
  • کلرمکوات‌کلراید
  • کندکننده‌رشد
Afria, B.S, Nathawat, N.S., & Yadav, M.L. (1998). Effect of cycocel and saline irrigation of physiological attributes, yield and its components in different varieties of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.Taub). Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 3, 46–48.

Afzal, I., Basra, S.M.A., Ahmad, N., Cheema, M.A., Warriach, E.A., & Khaliq, A. (2002). Effect of priming and growth regulator treatments on emergence and seedling growth of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 4, 303-306.

Ashraf, M. (2010). Inducing drought tolerance in plants: recent advances. Biotechnology Advances, 28, 169-183.

Ashraf, M., & Foolad, M.R. (2007). Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59, 206-216.

Ashraf, M., Athar, H.R., Harris, P.J.C., & Kwon, T.R. (2008). Some prospective strategies for improving crop salt tolerance. Advances in Agronomy, 97, 45–110.

Ashraf, M., Akram, N.A., Al Qurainy, F., & Foolad, M.R. (2011). Drought tolerance: roles of organic osmolytes, growth regulators, and mineral nutrients Advances in Agronomy, 111, 249–296.

Auskalniene, O., & Auskalnis, A. (2007). Plant growth regulators in winter wheat under Lithuanian conditions. Seria Agronomie, 51, 220-225.

Bahrami, K., Pirasteh Anosheh, H., & Emam, Y. (2014a). Growth parameters changes of barley cultivars as affected by different cycocel concentration. Crop Physiology, 21, 17-27.

Bahrami, K., Pirasteh Anosheh, H., & Emam, Y. (2014b). Yield and Yield Components responses of barley cultivars to foliar application of cycocel. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 12, 27-36.

Bano, A., & Yasmeen, S. (2010). Role of phytohormones under induced drought stress in wheat. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42, 2579-2587.

Bode, J., & Wild, A. (1984). Influence of 2-chloroethyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (CCC) on growth and photosynthetic metabolism of young wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Plant Physiology, 116, 435-446.

Bragg, P.L., Rubino, P., Henderson, F.K.G., & Fielding, W.G. (1984). A comparison of the root and shoot growth of winter barley and winter wheat and the effect of an early application of chlormequat. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 103, 257-264.

Cartwright, P.M., & Waddington, S.R. (1981). Growth regulators and grain yield in spring cereals. In: Hawkins, A.F., & Jeffcoat, B. (Eds.). Opportunities for manipulation of cereal productivity (pp. 61-70). Wantage: British Plant Growth Regulator Group.

Clark, R.V., & Fedak, G. (1977). Effects of chlormequat on plant height, disease development and chemical constituents of cultivars of barley, oats and wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 57, 31-36.

Darwin, C. (1880). The power of movement in plants. London: John Murray.

Davies, P.J. (2010). Plant hormones biosynthesis, signal transduction, action. Amsterdam: Springer.

Emam, Y. (2011). Cereal production (4th ed.). Shiraz: Shiraz University Press.

Emam, Y., & Karimi, H.R. (1996). Influence of chlormequat chloride on five winter barley cultivars. Iran Agricultural Research, 15, 89-104.

Emam, Y, & Moaied, G.R. (2000). Effect of planting density and chlormequat chloride on morphological and physiological characteristics of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Valfajr. Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology, 2, 75-83

Espindula, M.C., Rocha, V.S., Grossi, J.A.S., Souza, M.A., Souza, L.T., & Favarato, L.F. (2009). Use of growth retardants in wheat. Planta Daninha, 27, 379-387.

Gabr, A.I., Sharaky, M.M., & El Ashkar, S.A. (1977a). The combined effect of soil salinity and CCC on dry matter accumulation and yield of wheat plants. Biologia Plantarum, 19, 101-106.

Gabr, A.I., Sharaky, M.M., & El Ashkar, S.A. (1977b). The effect of different combinations of soil salinity and CCC on dry matter accumulation and yield of cotton plants. Biologia Plantarum, 19, 391-393.

Gans, W., Beschow, H., & Merbach, W. (2000). Growth regulators for cereal and oil crops on the basis of 2, 3-dichloroisobutyric acid and chlormequat chloride and residue analysis of both agents in the grain of oat. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 163, 405-410.

Gendy, A., & Hofner, W. (1989). Stalk shortening of oat (Avena sativa L.) by combined application of CCC, DCiB and ethephon. Angewandte Botanik, 63, 103-110

Gianfagna, T. (1995). Natural and synthetic growth regulators and their use in horticultural and agronomic crops. In Davies P. (Ed.). Plant hormones: physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology (pp. 751-774). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Gill, K.S., & Singh, O.S. (1978). Physiological response of dwarf wheat to chlorocholine chloride under soil moisture stress. Biologia Plantarum, 20, 421-424.

Gurmani, A.R., Bano, A., Khan, S.U., Din, J., & Zhang, J.L. (2011). Alleviation of salt stress by seed treatment with abscisic acid (ABA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and chlormequat chloride (CCC) optimizes ion and organic matter accumulation and increases yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5, 1278-1285.

Hamidi, R., & Pirasteh Anosheh, H. (2013a). Comparison effect of different seed priming methods on sunflower germination and seedling growth. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4 (6), 1247-1250

Hamidi, R., Pirasteh Anosheh, H., & Izadi, M. (2013b). Effect of seed halo-priming compared with hydro-priming on wheat germination and growth. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4(7), 1611-1615.

Hashemi, S.E., Pirasteh Anosheh, H., & Emam, Y. (2012). Role of cycocel in modulation of drought stress in germination and early growth of safflower. In Proceedings of The National Conference on Abiotic Stresses, 26-27 Oct., Isfahan, Iran. p. 324.

Ibrahim, M., Zeid, N., & El Semary, A. (2001). Response of two differentially drought tolerant varieties of maize to drought stress. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 4, 779-784.

Imbamba, S.K. (1973). Response of cowpeas to salinity and (2-Chloroethyl) trimethyl-ammonium chloride (CCC). Physiologia Plantarum, 28, 346-349.

Khaliq, A., Matloob, A., Mahmood, S., & Wahid, A. (2013). Seed pre-treatments help improve maize performance under sorghum allelopathic stress. Journal of Crop Improvement, 27, 586-605.

Khan, A., & Spilde, L. (1992). Agronomic and economic response of spring wheat cultivars to ethephon. Agronomy Journal, 84, 399-402.

Kirby, E.J.M., & Faris, D.G. (1970). Plant population induced growth correlations in the barley plant main shoot and possible hormonal mechanisms. Journal of Experimental Botany, 21, 787-798.

Kurepin, L.V, Ozga, J.A., Zaman, M., & Pharis, R.P. (2013). The physiology of plant hormones in cereal, oilseed and pulse crops. Prairie Soils Crops, 6, 7-23.

Latifkar, M., Mojaddam, M., & Nejad, T.S. (2014). The effect of application time of cycocel hormone and plant density on yield and yield components of wheat (Chamran cv.) in Ahvaz weather conditions. International Journal of Bioscience, 4, 234-242.

Leitch, M.H., & Hayes, J.D. (1990). Effects of single and repeated applications of chlormequat on early crop development, lodging resistance and yield of winter oats. Journal of Agriculture Science, 115, 11-14.

Lerner, H.R., & Amzallag, G.H.N. (1994). The response of plants to salinity: a working hypothesis. In Cherry, J.H. (ed.). Biochemical and cellular mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants (pp. 463-476). Berlin: Springer.

Ma, B.L., & Smith, D.L. (1991). Apical development of spring barley in relation to chlormequat and ethephon. Agronomy Journal, 83, 270-279.

Ma, B.L., & Smith, D.L. (1992a). Modification of tiller productivity in spring barley by application of chlormequat or ethephon. Crop Science, 32, 735-740.

Ma, B.L., & Smith, D.L. (1992b). Growth regulator effects on aboveground dry matter partitioning during grain fill of spring barley. Crop Science, 32, 741-746.

Ma, B.L., Dwyer, L.M., & Smith, D.L. (1994). Evaluation of peduncle perfusion for in vivo studies of carbon and nitrogen distribution in cereal crops. Crop Science, 34, 1584-1588.

Miranzadeh, H., Emam, Y., Seyyed, H., & Zare, S. (2011). Productivity and radiation use efficiency of four dryland wheat cultivars under different levels of nitrogen and chlormequat chloride. Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology, 13, 339-351.

Naylor, R.E.L, Bereton, P.S., & Munro, L. (1989). Modification of seedling growth of triticale and barley by seed applied chlormequat. Plant Growth Regulation, 8, 117–125.

Ozgur, M.( 2011). Growth control in cucumber seedlings by growth regulators application. Bulgarian Journal Agriculture Science, 17, 99-106.

Pakar, N., Pirasteh Anosheh, H., Emam, Y., & Pessarakli, M. (2016). Barley growth, yield, antioxidant enzymes and ions accumulation affected by PGRs under salinity stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition, in press Doi: 10.1080/ 01904167.2016.1143498.

Peltonen, J., & Peltonen Sainio, P. (1997). Breaking uniculm growth habit of spring cereals at high latitudes by crop management. II. Tillering, grain yield and yield components. Journal Agronomy and Crop science, 178, 87-95.

Peltonen Sainio, P., & Rajala, A. (2001). Chlormequat and ethephon effects on growth and yield formation of conventional, naked, and dwarf oat. Agricultural Food Science, 10, 175-184.

Peltonen Sainio, P., Rajala, A., Simmons, S., Caspers, R., & Stuthman, D. (2003). Plant growth regulator and day length effects on pre-anthesis main shoot and tiller growth in conventional and dwarf oat. Crop Science, 43, 227-233.

Pietola, L., Tanni, R., & Elonen, P. (1999). Responses of yield and N use of spring sown crops to N fertilization, with special reference to the use of plant growth regulators. Agricultural Food Science, 8, 423-440.

Pinthus, M.J., & Rudich, J. (1967). Increase in grain yield of CCC-treated wheat (Trtiticum aestivum L.) in the absence of lodging. Agrichimica, 6, 656-570.

Pirasteh Anosheh, H., & Emam, Y. (2012a). Manipulation of morpho-physiological traits in bread and durum wheat by using PGRs at different water regimes. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 5, 29-45.

Pirasteh Anosheh, H., & Emam, Y. (2012b). Yield and yield components responses of bread and durum wheat to PGRs under drought stress conditions in field and greenhouse. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 5, 1-18.

Pirasteh Anosheh, H., Emam, Y., Ashraf, M., & Foolad, M.R. (2012). Exogenous application of salicylic acid and chlormequat chloride alleviates negative effects of drought stress in wheat. Advanced Studies in Biology,11, 501-520.

Pirasteh Anosheh, H., Emam, Y., & Pessarakli, M. (2013). Changes in endogenous hormonal status in corn (Zea mays) hybrids under drought stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 36, 1695-1707.

Pirasteh Anosheh, H., Ranjbar, G., Emam, Y., & Ashraf, M. (2014a). Salicylic acid-induced recovery ability in salt-stressed Hordeum vulgare plants. Turkish Journal of Botany, 37, 112-121.

Pirasteh Anosheh, H., Emam, Y., & Ashraf, M. (2014b). Impact of cycocel on seed germination and growth in some commercial crops under osmotic stress conditions. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 60, 1277-1289.

Pourmohammad, A., Shekari, F., & Soltaniband, V. (2013). Effects of cycocel priming on growth and early development of rapeseed under drought stress. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae Agriculture and Environment, 5, 5-18.

Rademacher, W. (2000). Growth retardants: Effects on gibberellin biosynthesis and other metabolic pathways. Annual Review in Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, 51, 501-531.

Rajala, A. (2003). Plant growth regulators to manipulate cereal growth in northern growing condition. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Rajala, A. (2004). Plant growth regulators to manipulate oat stands. Agricultural and Food Science, 13, 186-197.

Rajala, A., & Peltonen Sainio, P. (2002). Timing applications of growth regulators to alter spring cereal development at high latitudes. Agricultural and Food Science, 11, 233-244.

Rodrigues, O., Didonet, A.D., Teixeira, M.C.C., & Roman, E.S. (2003). Growth Retardants. Passo Fundo: Embrapa Wheat Press.

Santner, A., Irina, L., Calderon Villalobos, A., & Estelle, M. (2012). Plant hormones are versatile chemical regulators of plant growth. Nature Chemical Biology, 5, 301-307.

Sharif, S., Safari, M., & Emam, Y. (2006). Effect of drought stress and cycocel on yield and its components of barley cultivar Valfajr. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 10, 281-290.

Shekoofa, A., & Emam, Y. (2008). Effect of nitrogen fertilization and plant growth regulators (PGRs) on yield of wheat. Shiraz. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 10, 101-08.

Srivastava, L.M. (2002). Plant growth and development: hormones and environment. San Diego: Academic Press.

Tennenhouse, A.N., & Lacroix, L.J. (1972). Effects of (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride (CCC) on certain agronomic traits of oats and triticale. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 52, 559-567.

Tolbert, N.E. (1960a). (2-Chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride and related compounds as plant growth substances. I. Chemical structure and bioassay. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 235, 475-479.

Tolbert, N.E. (1960b). (2-Chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride and related compounds as plant growth substances. II. Effect on growth of wheat. Plant Physiology, 35, 380-385.

Waddington, S.R., & Cartwright, P.M. (1986). Modification of yield components and stem length in spring barley by the application of growth retardants prior to main shoot stem elongation. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 107, 367-375.

Wang, C, Yang, A., Yin, H., & Zhang, J. (2008). Influence of water stress on endogenous hormone concentrations and cell damage of maize seedlings. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 50, 427–434.

Wang, H, Xiaoa, L., Tonga, J., & Liu, G. (2010). Foliar application of chlorocholine chloride improves leaf mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzyme activity, and tuber yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Scientia horticulturae, 125, 521–523.

Zadoks, J.C., Chang, T.T., & Kanzal, C.F. (1974). A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research, 14, 415-421.