The influence of sugarcane mulch on sand dune stabilization in Khuzestan, the southwest of Iran

Document Type: Full Article


1 Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, I.R. Iran.

2 Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, I.R. Iran.


ABSTRACT- Over the past 50 years, oil mulching has been a common technique for sand dune stabilization in the southwest of Iran (Khuzestan province). However, concerns over the release of heavy metals from oil mulching have led to the search for alternative mulches that are capable of stabilizing sand dunes without environmental hazards. This study investigates the feasibility of using sugarcane residues for producing environment-friendly mulches. Dunder, Press Mud, and clay soil from the surrounding area near the sand dunes were used to make sugarcane mulches for comparison with the traditional oil mulch. A sand dune was selected as a sample bed for applying the mulch. To select the proper ingredients and treatments, Dunder, Press Mud, and clay soil were mixed with water by a trial-and-error method. The selected batch mix was then used to make the desired mulch and sprayed on a sand dune bed. Shear strength of surface soil (SSS), penetration resistance (PR), soil surface shear resistance (SSR), and erodibility of selected treatments were measured by the shear torvane, hand penetrometer, Zhang’s surface shear device, and the wind tunnel. The treatments were arranged in a factorial experiment within a completely random design with the factors including mulch type (seven sugarcane mulches and one traditional oil mulch), thickness (1 or 2 layers), and rainfall (rain and no rain). The results indicate that SSS and PR increased with mulch thickness; the average values of SSS and PR obtained with the two-layer treatments were 1.27‒1.33 and 1.13‒1.15 times as great as the single-layer treatments. Increasing fraction of sugarcane residues significantly increased the SSS and PR. Higher concentrations of organic matter, CaCO3, and electrolyte in the sugarcane mulches may have helped the bonding of soil particles and increased the SSS and PR. However, the oil mulch had the lowest SSS but the highest PR. This might be due to the lower viscosity of oil mulch that allows it to penetrate sand dunes more easily than sugarcane mulches do.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

اثر مالچ های نیشکری بر روی تثبیت شن های روان در خوزستان، جنوب غربی ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • تارا جمیلی 1
  • حبیب اله نادیان 1
  • احسان شهبازی 2
2 دانشگاه شهرکرد،
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده- در طول 50 سال گذشته، مالچ پاشی نفتی روشی متداول برای تثبیت شن های روان، در جنوب غربی ایران (استان خوزستان) بوده است. با این حال، نگرانی ها در مورد انتشار فلزات سنگین از مالچ نفتی، منجر به تحقیق در زمینه مالچ های جایگزینی شده است که توانایی تثبیت شن های روان را بدون خطرات زیست محیطی داشته باشند. هدف از این پژوهش امکان استفاده از ضایعات نیشکر برای تولید مالچ سازگار با محیط زیست می باشد. ویناس، فیلترکیک و خاک رسی در منطقه نزدیک به شن های روان جهت تولید مالچ های نیشکری در مقایسه با روش سنتی مالچ پاشی نفتی مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. ویناس، فیلترکیک و خاک رسی به روش آزمون و خطا با مقدار مشخصی آب مخلوط گردیده اند و بر روی شن روان پاشیده شده اند. تنش برشی سطح خاک، مقاومت فروروی، مقاومت برشی سطح خاک و فرسایش پذیری تیمارهای انتخابی به ترتیب با دستگاه پره برشی، نفوذ سنج دستی، دستگاه برش سطحی ژانگ و تونل باد اندازه گیری شدند. تیمارها به صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با فاکتورهایی که شامل نوع مالچ (هفت نوع مالچ نیشکری و یک مالچ سنتی نفتی)، ضخامت (یک و دو لایه)، و بارش (باران و بدون بارن) انجام شد. نتایج نشان داده است که مقاومت برشی و مقاومت فروروی با ضخامت افزایش یافتند؛ میانگین مقادیر مقاومت برشی و فروروی اندازه گیری شده در تیمار دو لایه به ترتیب 27/1 – 33/1 و 13/1 – 15/1 برابر بیشتر از تیمار یک لایه بودند. افزایش مقدار ضایعات نیشکر به طور چشمگیری مقادیر مقاومت برشی و فروروی را افزایش داد. غلظت های بیشتر از مواد آلی، کربنات کلسیم و الکترولیت در مالچ های نیشکری باعث پیوند ذرات خاک و افزایش مقاومت برشی و فروروی می گردد. مالچ نفتی کمترین مقاومت برشی و بیشترین مقاومت فروروی را داشت. که می تواند به دلیل ویسکوزیته کمتر مالچ نفتی نسبت به مالچ های نیشکری باشد که به راحتی در شن های روان نفوذ می نماید.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه های کلیدی:
  • ویناس
  • تثبیت شن روان
  • مالچ نفتی
  • مالچ نیشکری
Ahmadi, H., Ekhtesasi, M.R., Feiznia, S., & Haneibafghi, M.J. (2002). Control methods of wind erosion for railroads protection (Case study: Bafgh region). Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 55, 327–339.

AlKhanbashi, A., & Abdalla, Sh.W. (2006). Evaluation of three waterborne polymers as stabilizers for sandy soil. Geotech. Geology Enginering, 24, 1603–1625.

Alizade, A. (2009). Soil Physics (in Persian). Imam Reza Univ. Press, Mashhad, Iran.

Barzegar, A.R., Oades, J.M., Rengasamy, P., & Giles, L. (1994). Effect of sodicity and salinity on disaggregation and tensile strength of an Alfisol under different cropping systems. Soil Tillers Reserch, 32, 329–345.

 Barzegar, A.R., Rengasamy, P., & Oades, J.M. (1995). Effects of clay type and rate of wetting on the mellowing of compacted soils. Geoderma, 68, 39–49.

Basha, E.A., Hashim, R., Mahmud, H.B., & Muntohar, A.S. (2005). Stabilization of residual soil with rice husk ash and cement. Construct. Building Materials, 19, 448–453.

BlancoCanqui, H., Lal, R., Owens, L.B., Post, W.M., & Izaurralde, R.C. (2005). Strength properties and organic carbon of soils in the north Appalachian region. Soil Science Society American Journal, 69, 663–673.

Bilbro, J.D., & Fryrear, D.W. (1994). Wind erosion losses as related to plant silhouette and soil cover. Agronomy Journal, 86, 550–553.

Bremner, J.M., & Mulvaney, C.S. (1982). Nitrogen-total. In: Page, A.L., Keeney, D.R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R.J., & Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. ASA/SSSA, Madison, Washington, pp. 595–622.

Bresler, E., McNeal, B.L., & Carter, D.L. (1982). Saline and Sodic Soils: Principles, Dynamics, Modeling. Berlin, Springer.

Chepil, W.S. (1944). Utilization of crop residues for wind erosion control. Scince Agricaltural, 24, 307–319.

 Diouf, B., Skidmore, E.L., Layton, J.B., & Hagen, L.J. (1990). Stabilizing Fine sand by adding clay: laboratory wind tunnel study. Soil Technology, 3, 21–31.

Fryear, D.W. (1985). Soil cover and wind erosion. Translations ASAE, 28, 781–784.

Gee, G.W., & Bauder, J.W. (1986). Particle size analysis. In: Klute, A. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Agronomy Handbook No 9. ASA/SSSA, Washington, Madison, WI, pp. 383–411.

Han, Z., Wang, T., Dong, Z., Hu, Y., & Yao, Z. (2007). Chemical stabilization of mobile dune fields along a highway in the Taklimakan desert of China. Journal Arident Environment, 68, 260–270.

Homauoni, Z.J., & Yasrobi, S.S. (2011). Stabilization of sune sand with poly methyl methacrylate and polyvinyl acetate using dry and wet processing. Geotech. Geology Enginering, 29, 571–579.

Horn, R., Taubner, H., Wuttke, M., & Baumgartl, T. (1994). Soil physical properties related to soil structure. Soil Tillers Reserch, 30, 187–216.

Jamshidsafa M. (2014). Investigatin of filter cake as adopted enviromental mulch using for sand dune stabilization in Ahvaz. University of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Ramin, pp. 432-443.

Khalilmoghadam, B., Afyuni, M., Jalalian, A., Abbaspour, K.C., & Dehghani, A.A. (2009). Estimation of surface shear strength in Zagros region of Iran ‒ A comparison of artificial neural networks and multiple-linear regression models. Geoderma, 153, 29–36.

Knapen, A., Poesen, J., Govers, G., Gyssels, G., & Nachtergaele, J. (2007). Resistance of soils to concentrated flow erosion: a review. Earth Science, 80, 75–109.

Knudsen, D., Peterson, G.A., & Preatt, P.E. (1982). Lithium, sodium and potassium. In: Page, A.L., Keeney, D.R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R.J., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2; Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Soil Science Society American, Washington, Madison, pp. 225–247.

 Koolen, A.J., & Kuipers, H. (1983). Agricultural Soil Mechanics. Advanced Series in Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 13, Berlin. Springer-Verlag, 241pp.

Lahalih, S.M., & Ahmet, N. (1998). Effect of new soil stabilizers on the compressive strength of dune sand. Construct. Building Materials, 12, 321–328.

Li, X.Y., Liu, L.Y., & Gong, J.D. (2001). Influence of pebble mulch on soil erosion by wind and trapping capacity for windblown sediment. Soil Tillers Reserch, 59, 137–142.

Majdi, H., Karimian Eghbal, M., Karimzade, H.R., & Jalalian, A. (2006). Effect of clay mulches on amount of aeolian dust. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resource, 10, 137–148. (In Persian)

Nelson, R.E. (1982). Carbonate and gypsum. In: Page, A.L., Keeney, D.R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R.J., & Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Agronomy Handbook No 9, ASA/SSSA, Washington, Madison, WI, pp. 181–197.

Newman, J.K., Tingle, J.S., Gill, R., & McCaffrey, T. (2005). Stabilization of silty sands using polymer emulsion. International Journal Pavemal, 4, 1–12.

Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., & Keeney, D.R. (Eds.) (1986). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. No. 9. ASA/SSSA, Washington, Madison, WI.

Rachman, A., Anderson, S.H., Gantzer, C.J., & Thompson, A.L. (2003). Influence of long-term cropping systems on soil physical properties related to soil erodibility. Soil Science Society American Journal, 67, 637–644.

Raesian, R.B. (2005). The presence of gravel on the surface of soil loss. 9th soil science congress of Iran, Tehran. 28- 31 August.

Raji, B.A., Uyovbisere, E.O., & Momodu, A.B. (2004). Impact of sand dune stabilization structures on soil and yield of millet in the semi-arid region of Nigeria. Environ. Monitial Assessment, 99, 181–196.

Rahimi, H., Pazira, E., & Tajik, F. (2000). Effect of soil organic matter, electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio on tensile strength of aggregates. Soil Tillers Reserch, 54, 145–153.

Rezaie, S.A. (2009). Comparison between Polylatice polymer and petroleum mulch on seed germination and plant stabilizement in sand dune fixation. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Reseach, 16, 124–136. (In Persian)

Santoni, R., Tingle, J., & Webster, S. (2001). Nontraditional stabilization of silty-sand. US Army Engineer Res Dev Center.

SAS Institute Inc. (1999). SAS/STAT User's Guide. Ver. 8.0. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

Siddoway, F.H., Chepil, W.S., & Armbrust, D.V. (1965). Effect of kind, amount, and placement of residue on wind erosion control. Translations ASAE, 8, 327–331.

VanReeuwijke, L.P., & Vente, J. (1993). Procedure for Soil Analysis. International Soil Reference and Information Center, Amsterdam.

Wójciga, A., Bolte, K., Horn, R., Stêpniewski, W., & Bajuk, E. (2009). Surface shear resistance of soils on the micro- to meso-scale. Int. Agrophysics, 23, 391–398.

Wu, Z. (2003). Geomorphology of wind-drift sands and their controlled engineering. Beijing: Science Press.

 Wuddivira, M.N., Stone, R.J., & Ekwue, E.L. (2013). Influence of cohesive and disruptive forces on strength and erodibility of tropical soils. Soil Tillers Reserch, 133, 40–48.

Yang, K. & Zejun, T. (2012). Effectiveness of  fly ash and polyacrylamide as a sand-fixing agent for wind erosion control. Water Air. Soil Polluton, 223, 4065–4074.

Yang, S., Lianyou, L., Yan, P., & Tong, C., (2005). A review of soil erodibility in water and wind erosion research. International Journal Geografy Influnce Science, 15, 167-176.

Yamanaka, T., Inoue, M., & Kaihotsu, I. (2004). Effects of gravel mulch on water vapor transfer above and below the soil surface. Agricaltural Water Management, 67,145–155.