Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, and soil drying on different forms of potassium and clay mineral changes in a calcareous soil under maize planting

Document Type: Full Article

Authors

Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran

Abstract

ABSTRACT- Greenhouse experiment was conducted in factorial experiment arranged as a completely randomized design (CRD) to evaluate the effect of Glomus intraradices, Pseudomonas fluorescence and soil drying on different forms of potassium (K) and the changes of clay minerals in a calcareous soil after maize planting. Treatments consisted of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus at two levels: G0 (not inoculated with fungus) and G1 (inoculated with Glomus intraradices), bacteria at two levels B0 (not inoculated with bacterium) and B1 (inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescence) and soil drying levels or four irrigation intervals of 2 (S0), 4(S1), 6(S2) and 8(S3) days. As soil drying increased, all forms of K increased and root colonization decreased. Inoculation of plants with microbial inoculants increased root colonization percentage and all forms of K in soil as compared to non microbial treatments.  However, the effect of single inoculation with bacterium was less pronounced. Co-inoculation treatments of plants with fungus and bacterium resulted in the maximum amounts of root colonization and K forms as compared to single inoculation of plants with each inoculum. The amount of illite-chlorite minerals increased as soil dryinglevels increased. In non mycorrhizal treatments, there were no smectite minerals, while in mycorrhizal treatments, the quantity of smectite minerals increased as the levels of soil dryingincreased. It might be concluded that biofertilizers and soil drying are effective in minerals weathering and dissolution and K releasing.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [Persian]

اثرات قارچ میکوریز آربسکولار، باکتری محرک رشد گیاه و تنش خشکی بر روی شکل‏های مختلف پتاسیم و تغییرات کانی‏های

Authors [Persian]

  • مجید باقرنژاد
  • نجف علی کریمیان
  • مهدی زارعی
Abstract [Persian]

چکیده- آزمایش گلخانه ای با استفاده از آزمون فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی  به منظور بررسی اثرات قارچ گلوموس اینترارادایسز، باکتری سودوموناس فلورسنس و تنش خشکی بر روی شکل­های مختلف پتاسیم و تغییرات کانی­های رسی در یک خاک آهکی خاک زیر کشت ذرت  انجام شد. تیمارها شامل قارچ میکوریز آربسکولار در دو سطح  G0­(تلقیح نشده با قارچ)و­ G1 (گلوموس اینترارادایسز)­،  باکتری سودوموناس فلورسنس در دو سطح B0­ (تلقیح نشده با باکتری) و  B1­(سودوموناس فلورسنس­)، تنش خشکی در چهار سطح ­S0 (بدون تنش)،  S1­(تنشFC  75%)، S2(تنش FC50%) و S3­(تنشFC  25%) بود. با افزایش تنش خشکی، همه شکلهای پتاسیم افزایش و درصدکلنیزاسیون ریشه کاهش یافت. مایه زنی میکروبی درصد کلنیزاسیون ریشه و همه شکلهای پتاسیم خاک را در مقایسه با تیمارهای مایه زنی نشده افزایش داد. با این وجود اثرات مایه زنی انفرادی گیاه با باکتری کمتر بود. بیشترین درصد کلنیزاسیون ریشه و مقدار شکلهای مختلف پتاسیم در تیمارهای مایه زنی گیاه با هر دو قارچ و باکتری در مقایسه با تیمارهای مایه زنی انفرادی مشاهده شد. با افزایش تنش خشکی مقدار کانی های ایلایت-کلریت افزایش یافت. با افزایش سطوح تنش خشکی، در تیمارهای غیر میکوریزی کانی های اسمکتیت مشاهده نگردید در حالیکه در تیمارهای میکوریزی مقدار این کانی ها افزایش یافت. بطور کلی نتایج  نشان داد که کودهای زیستی و تنش خشکی در هوادیدگی  و انحلال کانیها و  رهاسازی پتاسیم موثر هستند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • واژه های کلیدی:
  • گلوموس اینترارادایسز
  • سودوموناس فلورسنس
  • تنش خشکی
  • شکلهای پتاسیم
  • کانی شناسی خاک
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