Effect of 10-year continuous saffron cultivation on physical and chemical properties of soil

Document Type: Full Article

Authors

1 Department of Water Engineering, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran

2 Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran

Abstract

The effect of 10-year continuous saffron cultivation on physical and chemical properties of a silty clay loam soil was investigated in a research farm of College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (52 º 33ʹ E Longitude and 29º 36ʹ N latitude), Iran. This farm was irrigated with different regimes (100% of saffron's potential evapotranspiration (ETp), 75%ETp, 50%ETp) including rain fed treatment under two irrigation methods (basin and furrow irrigation). The results showed that the values of electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, Arsenic, Boron and soil bulk density of soil in the root zone increased significantly, but the final infiltration rate decreased significantly compared to the original soil. The value of pH in 100%ETp and 75%ETp treatments decreased and in 50%ETp and rain fed treatments increased compared to the original soil. Corms under high irrigation treatment had more weight up to a 6-year cultivation. However, after that, the corm weight declined to levels equal to or less than the low irrigation treatment cases. The number of total corms increased up to 6 years of cultivation and decreased after that. So, the continuous saffron cultivation causes some undesirable change in soil chemical and physical properties, which become pronounced after 6 years of cultivation.

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Main Subjects


Article Title [Persian]

اثر ده سال کشت مستمر زعفران بر خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک

Authors [Persian]

  • مریم خزاعی 1
  • علی اکبر کامگار حقیقی 1
  • علیرضا سپاسخواه 1
  • نجفعلی کریمیان 2
1 دانشگاه شیراز
2 دانشگاه شیراز
Abstract [Persian]

اثر ده سال کشت مستمر زعفران بر خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک ماسه- رسی- شنی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز ( طول جغرافیایی ʹ 33 ◦52 و عرض جغرافیایی ʹ 36 ◦29) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. این مزرعه با رژیم های مختلف آبیاری (100% ، 75% ، 50% تبخیر و تعرق پتانسیل زعفران) و تیمار دیم و تحت دو روش آبیاری کرتی و جویچه ای آبیاری می شد. نتایج نشان داد که مقادیر هدایت هیدرولیکی، نسبت جذبی سدیم، آرسنیک، بور و چگالی ظاهری خاک در منطقه ریشه افزایش معنی دار ولی سرعت نفوذ نهایی کاهش معنی داری در مقایسه با خاک بدون کشت داشت. میزان اسیدیته خاک در تیمار 100% تبخیر و تعرق پتانسیل و 75 % تبخیر و تعرق پتانسیل کاهش و در تیمار 50% تبخیر و تعرق پتانسیل و تیمار دیم در مقایسه با خاک بدون کشت افزایش یافت. پداژه ها تحت تیمار با آبیاری زیاد تا سال ششم کشت وزن بالایی داشتند در حالی که بعد از آن وزن پداژه ها به مقدار برابر یا کمتر از سطح آن در تیمار با آبیاری کم، کاهش یافتند. تعداد کل پداژه ها تا سال ششم کشت افزایش و سپس کاهش یافت. بنابراین کشت مستمر زعفران سبب تغییرات نامطلوبی در خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک می گردد که بعد از سال ششم کشت خود را نشان می دهد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • آبیاری کرتی و جویچه ای
  • تبخیر –تعرق پتانسیل
  • تغییرات نامطلوب در خاک
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